Critical Review of Measurement Practices in the Study of Automatic Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Exercise

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

Studies of automatic associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise are proliferating, but the lack of information on the psychometric properties of relevant measures is a potential impediment to progress. The purpose of this review was to critically summarize measurement practices in studies examining automatic associations related to sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise. Of 37 studies, 27 (73%) did not include a justification for the measure chosen to assess automatic associations. Additional problems have been noted, including the nonreporting of psychometric information (validity, internal consistency, test–retest reliability) and the lack of standardization of procedures (e.g., number, type of stimuli). The authors emphasize the need to select measures based on conceptual arguments and psychometric evidence and to standardize measurement procedures. To facilitate progress, the review concludes with a proposal for conceptually appropriate validation criteria to be used in future studies.

Zenko is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, California State University Bakersfield, Bakersfield, CA. Ekkekakis is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Zenko (zzenko@csub.edu) is corresponding author.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Article Sections
References
  • AjzenI. & MansteadA.S.R. (2007). Changing health-related behaviours: An approach based on the theory of planned behaviour. In M. HewstoneH.A.W. SchutJ.B.F. de WitK. van den Bos & M.S. Stroebe (Eds.) The scope of social psychology: Theory and applications (pp. 4363). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AmireaultS.GodinG. & Vézina-ImL.-A. (2013). Determinants of physical activity maintenance: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Health Psychology Review 7 5591. doi:10.1080/17437199.2012.701060

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AntoniewiczF. & BrandR. (2014). Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 36 631636. PubMed ID: 25602145 doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0033

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AntoniewiczF. & BrandR. (2016a). Dropping out or keeping up? Early-dropouts, late-dropouts, and maintainers differ in their automatic evaluations of exercise already before a 14-week exercise course. Frontiers in Psychology 7 00838. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00838

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AntoniewiczF. & BrandR. (2016b). Learning to like exercising: Evaluative conditioning changes automatic evaluations of exercising and influences subsequent exercising behavior. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 38 138148. doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0125

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BaldwinA.S.KangasJ.L.SmitsJ.A.J. & OttoM.W. (2015). The effect of an affect-based exercise intervention on implicit attitudes toward exercise. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 49 S89.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BanduraA. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education and Behavior 31 143164. PubMed ID: 15090118 doi:10.1177/1090198104263660

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BantingL.K.DimmockJ.A. & LayB.S. (2009). The role of implicit and explicit components of exerciser self-schema in the prediction of exercise behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 10 8086. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.07.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bar-AnanY. & NosekB.A. (2014). A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures. Behavior Research Methods 46668688. doi:10.3758/s13428-013-0410-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarghJ.A. (1994). The four horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, intention, efficiency, and control in social cognition. In R.S. Wyer & T.K. Srull (Eds.) Handbook of social cognition: Basic processes; Applications (pp. 140). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BecharaA. (2004). The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Brain and Cognition 55 3040. PubMed ID: 15134841 doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2003.04.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BecharaA. (2005). Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: A neurocognitive perspective. Nature Neuroscience 8 14581463. PubMed ID: 16251988 doi:10.1038/nn1584

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BecharaA. & DamasioA.R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and Economic Behavior 52 336372. doi:10.1016/j.geb.2004.06.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryT.R. (2006). Who’s even interested in the exercise message? Attentional bias for exercise and sedentary-lifestyle related words. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 28 417. doi:10.1123/jsep.28.1.4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryT.R. (2016). Changes in implicit and explicit exercise-related attitudes after reading targeted exercise-related information. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 22 273278. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryT.R.McLeodN.C.PankratowM. & WalkerJ. (2013). Effects of Biggest Loser exercise depictions on exercise-related attitudes. American Journal of Health Behavior 37 96103. PubMed ID: 22943106 doi:10.5993/AJHB.37.1.11

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryT.R. & ShieldsC. (2014). Source attribution and credibility of health and appearance exercise advertisements: Relationship with implicit and explicit attitudes and intentions. Journal of Health Psychology 19 242252. PubMed ID: 23300047 doi:10.1177/1359105312468190

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryT.R.SpenceJ.C. & ClarkM.E. (2011). Exercise is in! Implicit exercise and sedentary-lifestyle bias held by in-groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 41 29852998. doi:10.1111/jasp.2011.41.issue-12

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BickelW.K.MillerM.L.YiR.KowalB.P.LindquistD.M. & PitcockJ.A. (2007). Behavioral and neuroeconomics of drug addiction: Competing neural systems and temporal discounting processes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 90(Suppl. 1) S85S91. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.09.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BluemkeM.BrandR.SchweizerG. & KahlertD. (2010). Exercise might be good for me, but I don’t feel good about it: Do automatic associations predict exercise behavior? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 32 137153. PubMed ID: 20479475 doi:10.1123/jsep.32.2.137

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrandR. & AntoniewiczF. (2016). Affective evaluations of exercising: The role of automatic-reflective evaluation discrepancy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 38 631638. PubMed ID: 28033023 doi:10.1123/jsep.2016-0171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrandR. & EkkekakisP. (2018). Affective-reflective theory of physical inactivity and exercise: Foundations and preliminary evidence. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research 48 4858. doi:10.1007/s12662-017-0477-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CalitriR.LoweR.EvesF.F. & BennettP. (2009). Associations between visual attention, implicit and explicit attitude and behaviour for physical activity. Psychology & Health 24 11051123. PubMed ID: 20205048 doi:10.1080/08870440802245306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CaspersenC.J.PowellK.E. & ChristensonG.M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports 100 126131. PubMed ID: 3920711

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChenM. & BarghJ.A. (1999). Consequences of automatic evaluation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 215224. doi:10.1177/0146167299025002007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevalB.SarrazinP.Isoard-GautheurS.RadelR. & FrieseM. (2015). Reflective and impulsive processes explain (in)effectiveness of messages promoting physical activity: A randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology 34 1019. PubMed ID: 25133840 doi:10.1037/hea0000102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevalB.SarrazinP.Isoard-GautheurS.RadelR. & FrieseM. (2016). How impulsivity shapes the interplay of impulsive and reflective processes involved in objective physical activity. Personality and Individual Differences 96 132137. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevalB.SarrazinP. & PelletierL. (2014). Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis. PLoS ONE 9 e115238. PubMed ID: 25526596 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115238

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevalB.SarrazinP.PelletierL. & FrieseM. (2016). Effect of retraining approach-avoidance tendencies on an exercise task: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 13 13961403. PubMed ID: 27618248 doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0597

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevalB.TipuraE.BurraN.FrossardJ.ChanalJ.OrsholitsD. . . . BoisgontierM.P. (2018). Avoiding sedentary behaviors requires more cortical resources than avoiding physical activity: An EEG study. Neuropsychologia 119 6880. PubMed ID: 30056055 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.07.029

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevanceG.BernardP.ChamberlandP.E. & RebarA. (2019). The association between implicit attitudes toward physical activity and physical activity behaviour: A systematic review and correlational meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review 13248276. doi:10.1080/17437199.2019.1618726.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevanceG.CaudroitJ.HenryT.GuerinP.BoichéJ. & HéraudN. (2018). Do implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior prospectively predict objective physical activity among persons with obesity? Journal of Behavioral Medicine 41 3142. PubMed ID: 28884258 doi:10.1007/s10865-017-9881-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevanceG.CaudroitJ.RomainA.J. & BoichéJ. (2017). The adoption of physical activity and eating behaviors among persons with obesity and in the general population: The role of implicit attitudes within the theory of planned behavior. Psychology Health & Medicine 22 319324. PubMed ID: 26952746 doi:10.1080/13548506.2016.1159705

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevanceG.HéraudN.GuerrieriA.RebarA. & BoichéJ. (2017). Measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behaviors: Test–retest reliability of three scoring algorithms of the Implicit Association Test and Single Category-Implicit Association Test. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 31 7078. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.04.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevanceG.StephanY.HéraudN. & BoichéJ. (2018). Interaction between self-regulation, intentions and implicit attitudes in the prediction of physical activity among persons with obesity. Health Psychology 37 257261. PubMed ID: 29504789 doi:10.1037/hea0000572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConroyD.E. & BerrryT.R. (2017). Automatic affective evaluations of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 45 230237. PubMed ID: 28704217 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000120

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConroyD.E.HydeA.L.DoerksenS.E. & RibeiroN.F. (2010). Implicit attitudes and explicit motivation prospectively predict physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 39 112118. PubMed ID: 20140542 doi:10.1007/s12160-010-9161-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CraeynestM.CrombezG.De HouwerJ.DeforcheB.TangheA. & De BourdeaudhuijI. (2005). Explicit and implicit attitudes towards food and physical activity in childhood obesity. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43 11111120. PubMed ID: 16005700 doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.07.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CraeynestM.CrombezG.De HouwerJ.DeforcheB.TangheA. & De BourdeaudhuijI. (2008). The role of implicit attitudes towards food and physical activity in the treatment of youth obesity. Eating Behaviors 9 4151. PubMed ID: 18167322 doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.03.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DamasioA.R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion reason and the human brain. New York, NY: Putnam.

  • DamasioA.R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series B) 351(1346) 14131420. doi:10.1098/rstb.1996.0125

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DaviesC.A.SpenceJ.C.VandelanotteC.CaperchioneC.M. & MummeryW.K. (2012). Meta-analysis of Internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9 52. PubMed ID: 22546283 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-52

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DegnerJ. (2009). On the (un-)controllability of affective priming: Strategic manipulation is feasible but can possibly be prevented. Cognition and Emotion 23 327354. doi:10.1080/02699930801993924

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De HouwerJ. (2003). The Extrinsic Affective Simon task. Experimental Psychology 50 7785. PubMed ID: 12693192 doi:10.1026//1618-3169.50.2.77

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De HouwerJ.Teige-MocigembaS.SpruytA. & MoorsA. (2009). Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin 135 347368. PubMed ID: 19379018 doi:10.1037/a0014211

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Souto BarretoP. (2013). Why are we failing to promote physical activity globally? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 91 390390A doi:10.2471/BLT.13.120790

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP. (2013). The measurement of affect mood and emotion: A guide for health-behavioral research. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP. (2017). People have feelings! Exercise psychology in paradigmatic transition. Current Opinion in Psychology 16 8488. PubMed ID: 28813362 doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP. & BrandR. (2019). Affective responses to and automatic affective valuations of physical activity: Fifty years of progress on the seminal question in exercise psychology. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 42 130137. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.12.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP. & DafermosM. (2012). Exercise is a many-splendored thing but for some it does not feel so splendid: Staging a resurgence of hedonistic ideas in the quest to understand exercise behavior. In E.O. Acevedo (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of exercise psychology (pp. 295333). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP. & ZenkoZ. (2016). Escape from cognitivism: Exercise as hedonic experience. In M. RaabP. WyllemanR. SeilerA.M. Elbe & A. Hatzigeorgiadis (Eds.) Sport and exercise psychology research: From theory to practice (pp. 389414). London, UK: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EkkekakisP.ZenkoZ.LadwigM.A. & HartmanM.E. (2018). Affect as a potential determinant of physical activity and exercise: Critical appraisal of an emerging research field. In D.M. WilliamsR.E. Rhodes & M. Conner (Eds.) Affective determinants of health behavior (pp. 237261). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElfvingB.AnderssonT. & Ja GrootenW. (2007). Low levels of physical activity in back pain patients are associated with high levels of fear-avoidance beliefs and pain catastrophizing. Physiotherapy Research International 12 1424. PubMed ID: 17432390 doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1471-2865

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EndrighiR.Basen-EngquistK.SzetoE.PerkinsH.BaumG.Cox-MartinM. . . . WatersA.J. (2016). Self-reported and automatic cognitions are associated with exercise behavior in cancer survivors. Health Psychology 35 824828. PubMed ID: 27505202 doi:10.1037/hea0000385

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EvesF.F.ScottE.J.HoppéR. & FrenchD.P. (2007). Using the affective priming paradigm to explore the attitudes underlying walking behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology 12 571585. PubMed ID: 17931474 doi:10.1348/135910706X153775

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FalkE.B.O’DonnellM.B.CascioC.N.TinneyF.KangY.LiebermanM.D. . . . StrecherV.J. (2015). Self-affirmation alters the brain’s response to health messages and subsequent behavior change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 19771982. doi:10.1073/pnas.1500247112

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FazioR.H.SanbonmatsuD.M.PowellM.C. & KardesF.R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 229238. PubMed ID: 3701576 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ForrestL.N.SmithA.R.FussnerL.M.DoddD.R. & ClerkinE.M. (2016). Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 22 9197. PubMed ID: 26195916 doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.06.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ForscherP.S.LaiC.K.AxtJ.R.EbersoleC.R.HermanM.DevineP.G. & NosekB.A. (2019). A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 117(3) 522559. doi:10.1037/pspa0000160.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FrieseM.HofmannW. & SchmittM. (2009). When and why do implicit measures predict behaviour? Empirical evidence for the moderating role of opportunity, motivation, and process reliance. European Review of Social Psychology 19 285338. doi:10.1080/10463280802556958

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GainforthH.L.WestR. & MichieS. (2015). Assessing connections between behavior change theories using network analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 49 754761. PubMed ID: 26002108 doi:10.1007/s12160-015-9710-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. (2009). Ten frequently asked questions about implicit measures and their frequently supposed, but not entirely correct answers. Canadian Psychology 50 141150. doi:10.1037/a0013848

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & BodenhausenG.V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin 132 692731. PubMed ID: 16910748 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & BodenhausenG.V. (2011). The associative-propositional evaluation model: Theory, evidence, and open questions. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 44 59127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB.BrannonS.M. & BodenhausenG.V. (2017). The associative-propositional duality in the representation, formation, and expression of attitudes. In R. DeutschB. Gawronski & W. Hofmann (Eds.) Reflective and impulsive determinants of human behavior (pp. 103118). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & De HouwerJ. (2014). Implicit measures in social and personality psychology. In H.T. Resis & C.M. Judd (Eds.) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 283310). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB.DeutschR. & BanseR. (2011). Response interference tasks as indirect measures of automatic associations. In K.C. KlauerA. Voss & C. Stahl (Eds.) Cognitive methods in social psychology (pp. 78123). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & HahnA. (2018). Implicit measures: Procedures, use, and interpretation. In H. BlatonJ.M. LaCroix & G.D. Webster (Eds.) Measurement in social psychology (pp. 2955). New York, NY: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780429452925

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GenschowO.DemanetJ.HerscheL. & BrassM. (2017). An empirical comparison of different implicit measures to predict consumer choice. PLoS ONE 12 e0183937. PubMed ID: 28841700 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0183937

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoodallC.E. (2011). An overview of implicit measures of attitudes: Methods, mechanisms, strengths, and limitations. Communication Methods and Measures 5 203222. doi:10.1080/19312458.2011.596992

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GourlanM.BernardP.BortolonC.RomainA.J.LareyreO.CarayolM. . . . BoichéJ. (2016). Efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote physical activity: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Health Psychology Review 10 5066. PubMed ID: 25402606 doi:10.1080/17437199.2014.981777

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwaldA.G.McGheeD.E. & SchwartzJ.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 14641480. PubMed ID: 9654756 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwaldA.G.NosekB.A. &BanajiM.R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 197216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaggerM.S. (2016). Non-conscious processes and dual-process theories in health psychology. Health Psychology Review 10 375380. PubMed ID: 27718880 doi:10.1080/17437199.2016.1244647

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaggerM.S. (2017). Health behavior and the reflective-impulsive model. In R. DeutschB. Gawronski & W. Hofmann (Eds.) Reflective and impulsive determinants of human behavior (pp. 157172). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HaggerM.S. & ChatzisarantisN.L.D. (2014). An integrated behavior change model for physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 42 6269. PubMed ID: 24508739 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HainesE.L. & SumnerK.E. (2013). Digging deeper or piling it higher? Implicit measurement in organizational behavior and human resource management. Human Resource Management Review 23 229241. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.12.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HerringD.R.WhiteK.R.JabeenL.N.HinojosM.TerrazasG.ReyesS.M. . . . CritesS.L. (2013). On the automatic activation of attitudes: A quarter century of evaluative priming research. Psychological Bulletin 139 10621089. PubMed ID: 23339522 doi:10.1037/a0031309

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HobbsN.GodfreyA.LaraJ.ErringtonL.MeyerT.D.RochesterL. . . . SniehottaF.F. (2013). Are behavioral interventions effective in increasing physical activity at 12 to 36 months in adults aged 55 to 70 years? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine 11 75. PubMed ID: 23506544 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-75

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HofmannW.FrieseM. & WiersR.W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences on health behavior: A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review 2 111137. doi:10.1080/17437190802617668

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HofmannW.GawronskiB.GschwendnerT.LeH. & SchmittM. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31 13691385. PubMed ID: 16143669 doi:10.1177/0146167205275613

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoubenK.NosekB.A. & WiersR.W. (2010). Seeing the forest through the trees: A Comparison of different IAT variants measuring implicit alcohol associations. Drugs and Alcohol Dependence 106 204211. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.08.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuskinsonT.L.H. & HaddockG. (2006). Individual differences in attitude structure and the accessibility of the affective and cognitive components of attitude. Social Cognition 24 453468. doi:10.1521/soco.2006.24.4.453

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HydeA.L.DoerksenS.E.RibeiroN.F. & ConroyD.E. (2010). The independence of implicit and explicit attitudes toward physical activity: Introspective access and attitudinal concordance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 387393. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.04.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HydeA.L.ElavskyS.DoerksenS.E. & ConroyD.E. (2012). The stability of automatic evaluations of physical activity and their relations with physical activity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 34 715736. PubMed ID: 23204356 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.6.715

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JacksonT.GaoX. & ChenH. (2014). Differences in neural activation to depictions of physical exercise and sedentary activity: An fMRI study of overweight and lean Chinese women. International Journal of Obesity 38 11801185. PubMed ID: 24366575 doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.245

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KahnemanD.WakkerP.P. & SarinR. (1997). Back to Bentham? Explorations of experienced utility. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 375406. doi:10.1162/003355397555235

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KarpenS.C.JiaL. & RydellR.J. (2012). Discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitude measures as an indicator of attitude strength. European Journal of Social Psychology 42 2429. doi:10.1002/ejsp.v42.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KarpinskiA. & SteinmanR.B. (2006). The Single Category Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91 1632. PubMed ID: 16834477 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KruglanskiA.W.ErbH.-P.SpiegelS. & PierroA. (2003). The parametric unimodel of human judgment: A fanfare to the common thinker. In L.G. Aspinwall & U.M. Staudinger (Eds.) A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology (pp. 197210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeI.M.ShiromaE.J.LobeloF.PuskaP.BlairS.N. & KatzmarzykP.T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet 380(9838) 219229. PubMed ID: 22818936 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarklandD.HallC.R.DuncanL.R. & SimatovicJ. (2015). The effects of an imagery intervention on implicit and explicit exercise attitudes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 17 2431. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.11.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McConnellA.R. & RydellR.J. (2014). The systems of evaluation model: A dual-systems approach to attitudes. In J.W. ShermanB. Gawronski & Y. Trope (Eds.) Dual-process theories of the social mind (pp. 204218). New York, NY: Guilford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MetcalfB.HenleyW. & WilkinT. (2012). Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54). British Medical Journal 345 e5888. PubMed ID: 23044984 doi:10.1136/bmj.e5888

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoggK.BradleyB.P.FieldM. & De HouwerJ. (2003). Eye movements to smoking-related pictures in smokers: Relationship between attentional biases and implicit and explicit measures of stimulus valence. Addiction 98 825836. PubMed ID: 12780371 doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00392.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoorsA. & De HouwerJ. (2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin 132 297326. PubMed ID: 16536645 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.297

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoorsA.SpruytA. & De HouwerJ. (2010). In search of a measure that qualifies as implicit: Recommendations based on a decompositional view of automaticity. In B. Gawronski & B.K. Payne (Eds.) Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement theory and applications (pp. 1937). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurphyS.T. & ZajoncR.B. (1993). Affect, cognition, and awareness: Affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 723739. PubMed ID: 8505704 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.723

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NosekB.A. & BanajiM.R. (2001). The Go/No-go Association Task. Social Cognition 19(6) 625666 doi:10.1521/soco.2001.19.issue-6

  • NosekB.A.HawkinsC.B. & FrazierR.S. (2011). Implicit social cognition: From measures to mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 152159. PubMed ID: 21376657 doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.01.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OliverS. & KempsE. (2018). Motivational and implicit processes contribute to incidental physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology 23 820842. PubMed ID: 29804313 doi:10.1111/bjhp.2018.23.issue-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlsonM.A. & FazioR.H. (2004). Reducing the influence of extrapersonal associations on the Implicit Association Test: Personalizing the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 653667. PubMed ID: 15161392 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.86.5.653

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PadinA.C.EmeryC.F.VaseyM. & Kiecolt-GlaserJ.K. (2017). Self-regulation and implicit attitudes toward physical activity influence exercise behavior. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 39 237248. PubMed ID: 28937320 doi:10.1123/jsep.2017-0056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PayneB.K.ChengC.M.GovorunO. & StewartB.D. (2005). An inkblot for attitudes: Affect misattribution as implicit measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89 277293. PubMed ID: 16248714 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.277

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PrestwichA.SniehottaF.F.WhittingtonC.DombrowskiS.U.RogersL. & MichieS. (2014). Does theory influence the effectiveness of health behavior interventions? Meta-analysis. Health Psychology 33 465474. PubMed ID: 23730717 doi:10.1037/a0032853

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ProchaskaJ.O. & MarcusB.H. (1994). The transtheoretical model: Applications to exercise. In R.K. Dishman (Ed.) Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 161180). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RebarA.L.DimmockJ.A.JacksonB.RhodesR.E.KatesA.StarlingJ. & VandelanotteC. (2016). A systematic review of the effects of non-conscious regulatory processes in physical activity. Health Psychology Review 10 395407. PubMed ID: 27118430 doi:10.1080/17437199.2016.1183505

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RebarA.L.ElavskyS.MaherJ.P.DoerksenS.E. & ConroyD.E. (2014). Habits predict physical activity on days when intentions are weak. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 36 157165. PubMed ID: 24686952 doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0173

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RebarA.L.RamN. & ConroyD.E. (2015). Using the EZ-diffusion model to score a Single-Category Implicit Association Test of physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 16 96105. PubMed ID: 25484621 doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.09.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RedelmeierD.A. & KahnemanD. (1996). Patients’ memories of painful medical treatments: Real-time and retrospective evaluations of two minimally invasive procedures. Pain 66 38. PubMed ID: 8857625 doi:10.1016/0304-3959(96)02994-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E. (2017). The evolving understanding of physical activity behavior: A multi-process action control approach. In A.J. Elliot (Ed.) Advances in motivation science (Vol. 4 pp. 171205). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E. & de BruijnG.-J. (2013). How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework. British Journal of Health Psychology 18 296309. PubMed ID: 23480428 doi:10.1111/bjhp.2013.18.issue-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E. & DickauL. (2012). Experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology 31 724727. PubMed ID: 22390739 doi:10.1037/a0027290

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E. & KatesA. (2015). Can the affective responses to exercise predict future motives and physical activity behavior? A systematic review of published evidence. Annals of Behavioral medicine 49 715731. PubMed ID: 25921307 doi:10.1007/s12160-015-9704-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RydellR.J. & McConnellA.R. (2006). Understanding implicit and explicit attitude change: A systems of reasoning analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91 9951008. PubMed ID: 17144760 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.6.995

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SalaM.BaldwinA.S. & WilliamsD.M. (2016). Affective and cognitive predictors of affective response to exercise: Examining unique and overlapping variance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 27 18. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SanchezA.BullyP.MartinezC. & GrandesG. (2015). Effectiveness of physical activity promotion interventions in primary care: A review of reviews. Preventive Medicine 76(Suppl.) S56S67. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.09.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchinkoethM. & AntoniewiczF. (2017). Automatic evaluations and exercising: Systematic review and implications for future research. Frontiers in Psychology 8 2103. PubMed ID: 29250022 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02103

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SimsJ.ScarboroughP. & FosterC. (2015). The effectiveness of interventions on sustained childhood physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies. PLoS ONE 10 e0132935. PubMed ID: 26193472 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132935

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithC.T. & NosekB.A. (2011). Affective focus increases the concordance between implicit and explicit attitudes. Social Psychology 42 300313. doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000072

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SniehottaF.F.PresseauJ. & Araújo-SoaresV. (2014). Time to retire the theory of planned behaviour. Health Psychology Review 8 17. PubMed ID: 25053004 doi:10.1080/17437199.2013.869710

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpruytA.GastA. & MoorsA. (2011). The sequential priming paradigm: A primer. In K.C. KlauerA. Voss & C. Stahl (Eds.) Cognitive methods in social psychology (pp. 4877). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StrackF. & DeutschR. (2015). The duality of everyday life: Dual-process and dual system models in social psychology. In M. MikulincerP.R. ShaverE. Borgida & J.A. Bargh (Eds.) APA Handbook of personality and social psychology (Vol. 1 pp. 891927). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TeixeiraP.J.CarraçaE.V.MarklandD.SilvaM.N. & RyanR.M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9 78. PubMed ID: 22726453 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-78

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TremblayM.S.AubertS.BarnesJ.D.SaundersT.J.CarsonV.Latimer-CheungA.E. . . . ChinapawM.J.M. (2017). Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN): Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 14 75. PubMed ID: 28599680 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0525-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UhlmannE.L.LeavittK.MengesJ.I.KoopmanJ.HoweM. & JohnsonR.E. (2012). Getting explicit about the implicit: A taxonomy of implicit measures and guide for their use in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods 15 553601. doi:10.1177/1094428112442750

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UhlmannE.L.PoehlmanT.A. & NosekB.A. (2012). Automatic associations: Personal attitudes or cultural knowledge? In J. Hanson (Ed.) Ideology psychology and law (pp. 228260). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van CappellenP.RiceE.L.CatalinoL.I. & FredricksonB.L. (2018). Positive affective processes underlie positive health behaviour change. Psychology and Health 33 7797. PubMed ID: 28498722 doi:10.1080/08870446.2017.1320798

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WenturaD. & DegnerJ. (2010). A practical guide to sequential priming and related tasks. In B. Gawronski & B.K. Payne (Eds.) Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement theory and applications (pp. 95116). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsD.M. & EvansD.R. (2014). Current emotion research in health behavior science. Emotion Review 6 277287. doi:10.1177/1754073914523052

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsJ.M.G.MathewsA. & MacLeodC. (1996). The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin 120 324. PubMed ID: 8711015 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.120.1.3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WingoB.C.EvansR.R.ArdJ.D.GrimleyD.M.RoyJ.SnyderS.W. . . . BaskinM.L. (2011). Fear of physical response to exercise among overweight and obese adults. Qualitative Research in Sport Exercise and Health 3 174192. doi:10.1080/2159676X.2011.572994

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZaubermanG.DiehlK. & ArielyD. (2006). Hedonic versus informational evaluations: Task dependent preferences for sequences of outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 19 191211. doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1099-0771

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZenkoZ. & EkkekakisP. (2019). Internal consistency and validity of measures of automatic exercise associations. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 43 415. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.12.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZenkoZ.EkkekakisP. & ArielyD. (2016). Can you have your vigorous exercise and enjoy it too? Ramping intensity down increases postexercise, remembered, and forecasted pleasure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 38 149159. PubMed ID: 27390185 doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0286

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZenkoZ.EkkekakisP. & KavetsosG. (2016). Changing minds: Bounded rationality and heuristic processes in exercise-related judgments and choices. Sport Exercise and Performance Psychology 5 337351. doi:10.1037/spy0000069

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZnanewitzJ.BraunL.HenselD.AltobelliC.F. & HattkeF. (2018). A critical comparison of selected implicit measurement methods. Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics 11 249266. doi:10.1037/npe0000086

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZubalaA.MacGillivrayS.FrostH.KrollT.SkeltonD.A.GavineA. . . . MorrisJ. (2017). Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews. PLoS ONE 12 e0180902. PubMed ID: 28700754 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180902

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 366 365 230
Full Text Views 64 64 40
PDF Downloads 27 27 16
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar