Allocation of Attention to Visual and Nonvisual Perceptual Channels by Marksmen During Aiming: Skill-Level Differences

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Florida State University
  • 2 Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 3 Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

This study examined attention allocation in 30 marksmen categorized into 3 skill levels ranging from expert to novice. Each shooter performed 336 shooting trials. Half of the trials were performed under an occluded-vision condition and the rest under regular, unoccluded conditions. Immediately after completion of a random subset of shots (96 trials), shooters estimated the actual location of each shot, and on a random subset of trials (48 trials), shooters gave retrospective verbal reports. A mixed 3 × 2 factorial analysis of variance revealed that the expert marksmen performed and estimated their shots more accurately than the intermediate and novice marksmen, the intermediates performed like the experts under the full-vision condition and like novices under the occluded-vision condition, and the experts reported attending more to nonvisual information while they estimated their shots than did the novices. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms mediating expertise.

Monfared is with the College of Education, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; the School of Psychology, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA; and the Center for Advanced Brain Imaging, Atlanta, GA. Tenenbaum is with the Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel. Folstein and Ericsson are with the Dept. of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Monfared (smonfared6@gatech.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Abernethy, B. (1986). Anticipation in sport: A review. Physical Education Review, 10 , 516. Retrieved from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:276053

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, J.R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89 , 369406. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.89.4.369

  • Arsal, G., Eccles, D.W., & Ericsson, K.A. (2016). Cognitive mediation of putting: Use of a think-aloud measure and implications for studies of golf-putting in the laboratory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 27 , 1827. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ball, K., Best, R., & Wrigley, T. (2003). Inter- and intra-individual analysis in elite sports: Pistol shooting. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 19 , 2838. doi:10.1123/jab.19.1.28

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beek, P.J., & Lewbel, A. (1995). The science of juggling. Scientific American, 273(5), 9297. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/24982089

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, P.S., Scheffers, M.K., & Coles, M.G. (1995). “Where did I go wrong?” A psychophysiological analysis of error detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21 , 13121322. PubMed ID: 7490583 doi:10.1037/0096-1523.21.6.1312

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chung, G.K., Delacruz, G.C., de Vries, L.F., Bewley, W.L., & Baker, E.L. (2006). New directions in rifle marksmanship research. Military Psychology, 18 , 161179. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1802_5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A. (2003). Exceptional memorizers: Made, not born. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 , 233235. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00103-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102 , 211245. PubMed ID: 7740089 doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.2.211

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100 , 363406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A., & Simon, H.A. (1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Ericsson, K.A., & Ward, P. (2007). Capturing the naturally occurring superior performance of experts in the laboratory: Toward a science of expert and exceptional performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16 , 346350. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00533.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrow, D., Abernethy, B., & Jackson, R.C. (2005). Probing expert anticipation with the temporal occlusion paradigm: Experimental investigations of some methodological issues. Motor Control, 9 , 330349. doi:10.1123/mcj.9.3.330

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, M.C., Ericsson, K.A., & Best, R. (2011). Do procedures for verbal reporting of thinking have to be reactive? A meta-analysis and recommendations for best reporting methods. Psychological Bulletin, 137 , 316344. PubMed ID: 21090887 doi:10.1037/a0021663

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillingham, J., & Gillingham, J.R., III. (2003). European integration, 1950–2003: Superstate or new market economy? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goonetilleke, R.S., Hoffmann, E.R., & Lau, W.C. (2009). Pistol shooting accuracy as dependent on experience, eyes being opened and available viewing time. Applied Ergonomics, 40 , 500508. PubMed ID: 18992872 doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2008.09.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, R.N., & Sefton, J.M. (2011). Effects of stance width on performance and postural stability in national-standard pistol shooters. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 , 13811387. PubMed ID: 21916795 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.593039

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herpin, G., Gauchard, G.C., Lion, A., Collet, P., Keller, D., & Perrin, P.P. (2010). Sensorimotor specificities in balance control of expert fencers and pistol shooters. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20 , 162169. PubMed ID: 19217310 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinson, J.M., Jameson, T.L., & Whitney, P. (2003). Impulsive decision making and working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29 , 298306. PubMed ID: 12696817 doi:10.1037/0278-7393.29.2.298

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleiner, M., Brainard, D., Pelli, D., Ingling, A., Murray, R., & Broussard, C. (2007). What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3. Perception, 36(14), 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ko, J.H., Han, D.W., & Newell, K.M. (2017). Skill level constrains the coordination of posture and upper-limb movement in a pistol-aiming task. Human Movement Science, 55 , 255263. PubMed ID: 28858688 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2017.08.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ko, J.H., Han, D.W., & Newell, K.M. (2018). Skill level changes the coordination and variability of standing posture and movement in a pistol-aiming task. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36 , 809816. PubMed ID: 28628398 doi:10.1080/02640414.2017.1343490

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Land, W.M., Tenenbaum, G., Ward, P., & Marquardt, C. (2013). Examination of visual information as a mediator of external focus benefits. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35 , 250259. PubMed ID: 23798588 doi:10.1123/jsep.35.3.250

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKee, T. (2010, August 4). Shooting with your eyes closed [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27rjx93wwrg

    • Export Citation
  • Miltner, W.H., Braun, C.H., & Coles, M.G. (1997). Event-related brain potentials following incorrect feedback in a time-estimation task: Evidence for a “generic” neural system for error detection. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9 , 788798. PubMed ID: 23964600 doi:10.1162/jocn.1997.9.6.788

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, A.B., Clark, B.A., & Kane, M.J. (2008). Who shalt not kill? Individual differences in working memory capacity, executive control, and moral judgment. Psychological Science, 19 , 549557. PubMed ID: 18578844 doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02122.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, C.P., Jackson, R.C., & Williams, A.M. (2018). The role of contextual information during skilled anticipation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71 , 20702087. doi:10.1177/1747021817739201

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, J.S., Ward, P., Ericsson, A., & Williams, A.M. (2011). Mechanisms underlying skilled anticipation and recognition in a dynamic and temporally constrained domain. Memory, 19 , 155168. PubMed ID: 21294038 doi:10.1080/09658211.2010.541466

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Notebaert, W., Houtman, F., Van Opstal, F., Gevers, W., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2009). Post-error slowing: An orienting account. Cognition, 111 , 275279. PubMed ID: 19285310 doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raab, M., & Johnson, J.G. (2007). Expertise-based differences in search and option-generation strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13 , 158. PubMed ID: 17924801 doi:10.1037/1076-898X.13.3.158

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schack, T., & Tenenbaum, G. (2004). Perceptual and cognitive control in action—A preface. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2 , 207209. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2004.9671742

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, R.A., & Wrisberg, C.A. (2008). Motor learning and performance: A situation-based learning approach. Champaign, IL: Human kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smeeton, N.J., Williams, A.M., Hodges, N.J., & Ward, P. (2005). The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11 , 98110. doi:10.1037/1076-898X.11.2.98

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shim, J., Carlton, L.G., Chow, J.W., & Chae, W.S. (2005). The use of anticipatory visual cues by highly skilled tennis players. Journal of Motor Behavior, 37 , 164175. PubMed ID: 15730949 doi:10.3200/JMBR.37.2.164-175

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G., Levy-Kolker, N., Sade, S., Liebermann, D.G., & Lidor, R. (1996). Anticipation and confidence of decisions related to skilled performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27 , 293307. Retrieved from http://www.ijsp-online.com/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viitasalo, J.T., Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mononen, H., Mononen, K., Norvapalo, K., & Rintakoski, E. (1999). The posture steadiness of running target shooters of different skill levels. Kinesiology, 31 , 1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Ericsson, K.A., & Williams, A.M. (2013). Complex perceptual-cognitive expertise in a simulated task environment. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 7 , 231254. doi:10.1177/1555343412461254

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Suss, J., Eccles, D.W., Williams, A.M., & Harris, K.R. (2011). Skill-based differences in option generation in a complex task: A verbal protocol analysis. Cognitive Processing, 12 , 289300. PubMed ID: 21461753 doi:10.1007/s10339-011-0397-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Williams, A.M., & Bennett, S.J. (2002). Visual search and biological motion perception in tennis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73 , 107112. PubMed ID: 11926480 doi:10.1080/02701367.2002.10608997

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M. (2000). Perceptual skill in soccer: Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18 , 737750. doi:10.1080/02640410050120113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., Ford, P.R., Eccles, D.W., & Ward, P. (2011). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport and its acquisition: Implications for applied cognitive psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25 , 432442. doi:10.1002/acp.1710

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., Ward, P., Knowles, J.M., & Smeeton, N.J. (2002). Anticipation skill in a real-world task: Measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8 , 259270. PubMed ID: 12570100 doi:10.1037/1076-898X.8.4.259

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 344 344 5
Full Text Views 49 49 0
PDF Downloads 35 35 0