Claims in Surfing: The Influence of Emotional Postperformance Expressions on Performance Evaluations

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 German Sport University Cologne
  • 2 Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

The goal of the present research was to investigate whether claims (postperformance nonverbal emotional expressions) influence people in evaluating performance during surf contests. To test this research question, the authors sampled videos from professional surf contests and asked laypeople (Experiment 1; N = 110) and surf judges (Experiment 2; N = 41) to evaluate the performance in 2 online experiments. A subset of the surfing performances showed surfers displaying postperformance emotional expressions (claims), while another subset showed the same performances without the claims (nonverbal emotional expressions). Both experiments provided evidence that both laypeople and surf judges were biased by claims in judging surfing performances, with claims better than the performances without claims. The findings are in line with social-cognitive models emphasizing the socioconsequences of emotion expressions. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for sport competitions that rely on judging sport performance.

Furley, Klinge, and Dörr are with German Sport University, Cologne, Germany, Furley in the Inst. of Training and Computer Science in Sport. Thrien is with Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.

Furley (p.furley@dshs-koeln.de) is corresponding author.
  • Brunswik, E. (1957). Scope and aspects of the cognitive problem. In H. Gruber, K.R. Hammond, & R. Jessor (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to cognition (pp. 531). Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buscombe, R., Greenlees, I., Holder, T., Thelwell, R., & Rimmer, M. (2006). Expectancy effects in tennis: The impact of opponents’ pre-match non-verbal behavior on male tennis players. Journal of Sports Science, 24, 12651272. doi:10.1080/02640410600598281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardy, R.L., & Dobbins, G.H. (1986). Affect and appraisal accuracy: Liking as an integral dimension in evaluating performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 672678.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darwin, C. (1872/1998). The expression of emotions in man and animals. London, UK: Murray.

  • DePaulo, B.M. (1992). Nonverbal behavior and self-presentation. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 203243. PubMed ID: 1557474

  • Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169200. doi:10.1080/02699939208411068

  • Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. (1969). The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1, 4998.

  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175191. doi:10.3758/BF03193146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fiedler, K. (2011). Voodoo correlations are everywhere—Not only in neuroscience. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 163171. PubMed ID: 26162135 doi:10.1177/1745691611400237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Dicks, M. (2012). “Hold your head high”: The influence of emotional versus neutral nonverbal expressions of dominance and submissiveness in baseball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43, 294311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., Dicks, M., & Memmert, D. (2012). Nonverbal behavior in soccer: The influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 6182. PubMed ID: 22356883 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.1.61

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., Dicks, M., Stendtke, F., & Memmert, D. (2012). “Get it out the way. The wait’s killing me.” Hastening and hiding during soccer penalty kicks. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 454465. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.01.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., Moll, T., & Memmert, D. (2015). “Put your hands up in the air”? The interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions on opponents and teammates. Frontiers, 6, 120. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01261

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2014a). “I’m pretty sure that we will win!” The influence of score-related nonverbal behavioral changes on the confidence in winning a basketball game. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 316320. doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0199

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2014b). The expression of victory and loss: Estimating who’s leading or trailing from nonverbal cues in sports. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 1329. doi:10.1007/s10919-013-0168-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2016a). In a flash: Thin slice judgment accuracy of leading and trailing in sports. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40, 83100. doi:10.1007/s10919-015-0225-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2016b). Nonverbal communication of confidence in soccer referees: An experimental test of Darwin’s leakage hypothesis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 38, 590597. doi:10.1123/jsep.2016-0192

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furley, P., & Schweizer, G. (2020). Body language in sport. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (4th ed.), pp. 12011219. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday/Anchor Books.

  • Goffman, E. (1963). Behavior in public places. New York, NY: Free Press.

  • Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in public. New York, NY: Basic Books.

  • Greenlees, I.A., Bradley, A., Holder, T.P., & Thelwell, R.C. (2005). The impact of opponents’ non-verbal behavior on the first impressions and outcome expectations of table-tennis players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 103115. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2003.10.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenlees, I.A., Buscombe, R., Thelwell, R.C., Holder, T.P., & Rimmer, M. (2005). Impact of opponents’ clothing and body language on impression formation and outcome expectations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27, 3952. doi:10.1123/jsep.27.1.39

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammond, K.R., Stewart, T.R., Brehmer, B., & Steinmann, D. (1975). Social judgment theory. In M.F. Kaplan& S. Schwartz (Eds.), Human judgment and decision processes (pp. 271312). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J.T., & Rapson, R.L. (1993). Emotional contagion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 9699. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jordet, G., & Hartman, E. (2008). Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 450457. PubMed ID: 18723902 doi:10.1123/jsep.30.4.450

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keltner, D., Tracy, J.L., Sauter, D., & Cowen, A. (2019). What basic emotion theory really says for the twenty-first century study of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 43(2), 195201. doi:10.1007/s10919-019-00298-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsumoto, D., Frank, M., & Hwang, H.S. (2013). Nonverbal communication: Science and applications. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

  • Moll, T., Jordet, G., & Pepping, G.-J. (2010). Emotional contagion in soccer penalty shootouts: Celebration of individual success is associated with ultimate team success. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 983992. PubMed ID: 20544488 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.484068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plessner, H., & Haar, T. (2006). Sports performance judgments from a social cognitive perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 555575. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plessner, H., Schweizer, G., Brand, R., & O’Hare, D. (2009). A multiple-cue learning approach as the basis for understanding and improving soccer referees’ decision making. Progress in Brain Research, 174, 151158. PubMed ID: 19477337 doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(09)01313-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schweizer, G., & Furley, P. (2016). Reproducible research in sport and exercise psychology: The role of sample sizes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 23, 114122. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.11.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schweizer, G., Plessner, H., Kahlert, D., & Brand, R. (2011). A video-based training method for improving soccer referees’ intuitive decision-making skills. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 429442. doi:10.1080/10413200.2011.555346

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shiota, M.N., Campos, B., Oveis, C., Hertenstein, M., Simon-Thomas, E., & Keltner, D. (2017). Beyond happiness: Building a science of discrete positive emotions. American Psychologist, 72, 617643. PubMed ID: 29016167

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tracy, J.L., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 1165511660.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unkelbach, C., & Memmert, D. (2010). Crowd noise as a cue in referee decisions contributes to the home advantage. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 483498. PubMed ID: 20733209 doi:10.1123/jsep.32.4.483

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Kleef, G.A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184188. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01633.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 382 382 56
Full Text Views 53 53 13
PDF Downloads 26 26 4