Examining the Relationships Among Cognitive Acceptance, Behavioral Commitment, Autonomous Extrinsic Motivation, and Physical Activity

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Otago
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

This study examined the relationships among cognitive acceptance, behavioral commitment, psychological need satisfaction, autonomous extrinsic motivation (EM) for physical activity (PA), and PA behavior. Participants (N = 456, M age = 40.7 years) completed online measures of these variables, and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated a direct pathway from behavioral commitment to autonomous EM, plus indirect effects via autonomy, competence, and relatedness. There was no direct pathway from cognitive acceptance to autonomous EM, but there were indirect effects via competence and autonomy satisfaction. There was a direct pathway from cognitive acceptance to self-reported PA plus indirect effects via autonomous EM. There was no direct pathway from behavioral commitment to self-reported PA, but there were indirect effects via autonomous EM. Cognitive acceptance and behavioral commitment potentially support the development of autonomous EM for PA. Future research using longitudinal and intervention-based research designs is required to determine the causal relationships among these variables.

The authors are with the School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Jenkins (matthew.jenkins@otago.ac.nz) is corresponding author.
  • Allison , P.D. (2003). Missing data techniques for structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 545557. PubMed ID: 14674868 doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.545

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen , L.B. , Mota , J. , & Di Pietro , L. (2016). Update on the global pandemic of physical inactivity. Lancet, 388, 12551256. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30960-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annesi , J.J. (2004). Relationship of social cognitive theory factors to exercise maintenance in adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 142148. PubMed ID: 15446639 doi:10.2466/PMS.99.5.142-148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biddle , S.J. , & Nigg , C.R. (2000). Theories of exercise behavior. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 290304.

  • Brown , K.W. , & Ryan , R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822848. PubMed ID: 12703651 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butryn , M.L. , Arigo , D. , Raggio , G.A. , Kaufman , A.I. , Kerrigan , S.G. , & Forman , E.M. (2015). Measuring the ability to tolerate activity-related discomfort: Initial validation of the physical activity acceptance questionnaire (PAAQ). Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12, 717726. PubMed ID: 25106049 doi:10.1123/jpah.2013-0338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig , C. , Marshall , A. , Sjöström , M. , Bauman , A. , Booth , M. , Ainsworth , B. , . . . Sallis , J. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ): 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 8195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis , C. , Fox , J. , Brewer , H. , & Ratusny , D. (1995). Motivations to exercise as a function of personality characteristics, age, and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 165174. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(95)00030-A

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deci , E.L. , & Ryan , R.M. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E.L. Deci & R.M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 333). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deci , E.L. , & Ryan , R.M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49, 182185. doi:10.1037/a0012801

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edmunds , J. , Ntoumanis , N. , & Duda , J.L. (2006). A test of self-determination theory in the exercise domain. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 22402265. doi:10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00102.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fortier , M.S. , Duda , J.L. , Guerin , E. , & Teixeira , P.J. (2012). Promoting physical activity: Development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 20. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-20

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guay , F. , Mageau , G.A. , & Vallerand , R.J. (2003). On the hierarchical structure of self-determined motivation: A test of top-down, bottom-up, reciprocal, and horizontal effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 9921004. PubMed ID: 15189618 doi:10.1177/0146167203253297

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunnell , K.E. , Crocker , P.R. , Mack , D.E. , Wilson , P.M. , & Zumbo , B.D. (2014). Goal contents, motivation, psychological need satisfaction, well-being and physical activity: A test of self-determination theory over 6 months. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 1929. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunnell , K.E. , Wilson , P.M. , Zumbo , B.D. , Mack , D.E. , & Crocker , P.R. (2012). Assessing psychological need satisfaction in exercise contexts: Issues of score invariance, item modification, and context. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 16, 219236. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2012.693340

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallal , P.C. , Andersen , L.B. , Bull , F.C. , Guthold , R. , Haskell , W. , Ekelund , U. , & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380, 247257. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayduk , L.A. (1987). Structural equation modeling with LISREL. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

  • Hayes , S.C. , Follette , V.M. , & Linehan , M.M. (2004). Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes , S.C. , Luoma , J.B. , Bond , F.W. , Masuda , A. , & Lillis , J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 125. PubMed ID: 16300724 doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes , S.C. , Strosahl , K.D. , & Wilson , K.G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu , L.T. , & Bentler , P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwan , B.M. , Hooper , A.E.C. , Magnan , R.E. , & Bryan , A.D. (2011). A longitudinal diary study of the effects of causality orientations on exercise-related affect. Self and Identity, 10, 363374. doi:10.1080/15298868.2010.534238

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee , P.H. , Macfarlane , D.J. , Lam , T. , & Stewart , S.M. (2011). Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF): A systematic. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 115. PubMed ID: 22018588 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-115

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li , C. , Kee , Y.H. , Wang , X. , & Guo , Q. (2018). The big five personality traits and physical and emotional exhaustion among athletes: The mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 49, 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindwall , M. , Ivarsson , A. , Weman-Josefsson , K. , Jonsson , L. , Ntoumanis , N. , Patrick , H. , . . . Teixeira , P. (2017). Stirring the motivational soup: Within-person latent profiles of motivation in exercise. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 4. PubMed ID: 28088208 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0464-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Little , R.J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 11981202. doi:10.1080/01621459.1988.10478722

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markland , D. , & Tobin , V. (2004). A modification to the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire to include an assessment of amotivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 191196. doi:10.1123/jsep.26.2.191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh , H.W. , & Yeung , A.S. (1998). Longitudinal structural equation models of academic self-concept and achievement: Gender differences in the development of math and English constructs. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 705738. doi:10.3102/00028312035004705

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • New Zealand Ministry of Health. (2017). Activity levels in New Zealand. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/healthy-living/food-activity-and-sleep/physical-activity/activity-levels-new-zealand

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patrick , H. (2014). Ascending Mount Maslow with oxygen to spare: A self- determination theory perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 25, 101107. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2014.878682

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preacher , K.J. , & Hayes , A.F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879891. PubMed ID: 18697684 doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Puetz , T.W. , O’Connor , P.J. , & Dishman , R.K. (2006). Effects of chronic exercise on feelings of energy and fatigue: A quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 866876. PubMed ID: 17073524 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.866

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan , R.M. , & Deci , E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 5467. PubMed ID: 10620381 doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan , R.M. , & Deci , E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. London, UK: Guilford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan , R.M. , & Patrick , H. (2009). Self-determination theory and physical activity. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 6, 107124.

  • Savalei , V. (2019). A comparison of several approaches for controlling measurement error in small samples. Psychological Methods, 24, 352370. PubMed ID: 29781637 doi:10.1037/met0000181

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva , M.N. , Vieira , P.N. , Coutinho , S.R. , Minderico , C.S. , Matos , M.G. , Sardinha , L.B. , & Teixeira , P.J. (2010). Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: A randomized controlled trial in women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 110122. PubMed ID: 20012179 doi:10.1007/s10865-009-9239-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Su , R. , Zhang , Q. , Liu , Y. , & Tay , L. (2019). Modeling congruence in organizational research with latent moderated structural equations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 14041433. doi:10.1037/apl0000411

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teixeira , P.J. , Carraça , E.V. , Markland , D. , Silva , M.N. , & Ryan , R.M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 78. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-78

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulmer , C.S. , Stetson , B.A. , & Salmon , P.G. (2010). Mindfulness and acceptance are associated with exercise maintenance in YMCA exercisers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 805809. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams , L. (2013). Commitment to sport and exercise: Re-examining the literature for a practical and parsimonious model. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 46, S35S42. doi:10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.S.S35

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson , P.M. , Rodgers , W.M. , Carpenter , P.J. , Hall , C. , Hardy , J. , & Fraser , S.N. (2004). The relationship between commitment and exercise behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 405421. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00035-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson , P.M. , Rodgers , W.M. , Loitz , C.C. , & Scime , G. (2006). It’s who I am really! The importance of integrated regulation in exercise contexts. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 11, 79104. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9861.2006.tb00021.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson , P.M. , Rogers , W.T. , Rodgers , W.M. , & Wild , T.C. (2006). The psychological need satisfaction in exercise scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28, 231251. doi:10.1123/jsep.28.3.231

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson , P.M. , Sabiston , C.M. , Mack , D.E. , & Blanchard , C.M. (2012). On the nature and function of scoring protocols used in exercise motivation research: An empirical study of the behavioral regulation in exercise questionnaire. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 614622. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.03.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2019). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/physical_activity/en/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 300 300 51
Full Text Views 53 53 7
PDF Downloads 33 33 3