Goal Motives and Well-Being in Student-Athletes: A Person-Centered Approach

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Nottingham Trent University
  • 2 Curtin University
  • 3 UK Sport
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

Using a person-centered approach, the aim of this study was to examine how student-athletes’ motives for multiple-goal pursuit relate to indices of well- and ill-being. Student-athletes (N = 362) from British universities identified the most important sporting and academic goals that they were pursuing over the academic year. The participants rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified, and intrinsic goal motives for each goal and completed measures of well- and ill-being. Latent profile analysis revealed six distinct profiles of goal motives, with variations in both the strength of motives and the motivational quality. Follow-up analyses revealed between-profile differences for well- and ill-being; students with more optimal goal motive profiles reported higher and lower well- and ill-being, respectively, than those with less optimal goal motives. To experience well-being benefits when pursuing multiple goals, student-athletes should strive for their academic and sporting goals with high autonomous and low controlled goal motives.

Healy is with the Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement (SHAPE) Research Group, Dept. of Sport Science, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Ntoumanis is with the Physical Activity and Well-Being Research Group, School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia. Arthur is with UK Sport, London, United Kingdom.

Healy (laura.healy@ntu.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Aarts, H., Gollwitzer, P.M., & Hassin, R.R. (2004). Goal contagion: Perceiving is for pursuing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 2337. PubMed ID: 15250790 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.1.23

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adie, J.W., Duda, J.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2008). Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: A test of basic needs theory. Motivation and Emotion, 32(3), 189199. doi:10.1007/s11031-008-9095-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aldridge, A.A., & Roesch, S.C. (2008). Developing coping typologies of minority adolescents: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 499517. PubMed ID: 17904631 doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amorose, A.J., & Anderson-Butcher, D. (2015). Exploring the independent and interactive effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling coaching behaviors on adolescent athletes’ motivation for sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(3), 206218. doi:10.1037/spy0000038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bahrami, Z., & Cranney, J. (2018). Integrated conative model of well-being: From motives to well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(4), 961981. doi:10.1007/s10902-017-9845-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 193216. PubMed ID: 20479478 doi:10.1123/jsep.32.2.193

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 57(1), 289300. doi:10.1111/j.2517-6161.1995.tb02031.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berlin, K.S., Williams, N.A., & Parra, G.R. (2014). An introduction to latent variable mixture modeling (Part 1): Overview and cross-sectional latent class and latent profile analyses. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(2), 174187. PubMed ID: 24277769 doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jst084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bostic, T.J., Doris, M.R., & Hood, M. (2000). A validation of the subjective vitality scale using structural equation modeling. Social Indicators Research, 52(3), 313324. doi:10.1023/A:1007136110218

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cosh, S., & Tully, P.J. (2014). “All I have to do is pass”: A discursive analysis of student athletes’ talk about prioritising sport to the detriment of education to overcome stressors encountered in combining elite sport and tertiary education. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(2), 180189. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diener, E., & Emmons, R.A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(5), 11051117. PubMed ID: 6520704 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.47.5.1105

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R.E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In S.J. Lopez, & C.R. Snyder (Eds.), The oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 186194). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243.013.0017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duda, J.L. (2013). The conceptual and empirical foundations of Empowering CoachingTM: Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 311318. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.839414

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emmons, R.A. (1991). Personal strivings, daily life events, and psychological and physical well-being. Journal of Personality, 59(3), 453472. PubMed ID: 1960639 doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1991.tb00256.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaudreau, P. (2012). Goal self-concordance moderates the relationship between achievement goals and indicators of academic adjustment. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(6), 827832. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.06.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaudreau, P., & Braaten, A. (2016). Achievement goals and their underlying goal motivation: Does it matter why sport participants pursue their goals? Psychologica Belgica, 56(3), 244268. PubMed ID: 30479439 doi:10.5334/pb.266

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerber, M., Jonsdottir, I.H., Lindwall, M., & Ahlborg, G. (2014). Physical activity in employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles: A latent profile analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(6), 649658. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.07.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillet, N., Berjot, S., & Rosnet, E. (2009). An analysis of the impact of environmental conditions on the relationships between need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 40(2), 249269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillet, N., Berjot, S., Vallerand, R.J., Amoura, S., & Rosnet, E. (2012). Examining the motivation-performance relationship in competitive sport: A cluster-analytic approach. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43(2), 79102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M.-A.K., Huyghebaert, T., & Fouquereau, E. (2015). Autonomous and controlled reasons underlying achievement goals: Implications for the 3 × 2 achievement goal model in educational and work settings. Motivation and Emotion, 39(6), 858875. doi:10.1007/s11031-015-9505-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillet, N., & Vallerand, R.J. (2016). Effects of motivation on sport performance based on self-determination theory: Towards a person-centered approach. Psychologie Francaise, 61(4), 257271. doi:10.1016/j.psfr.2014.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glickman, M.E., Rao, S.R., & Schultz, M.R. (2014). False discovery rate control is a recommended alternative to Bonferroni-type adjustments in health studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(8), 850857. PubMed ID: 24831050 doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.03.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorges, J., Esdar, W., & Wild, E. (2014). Linking goal self-concordance and affective reactions to goal conflict. Motivation and Emotion, 38(4), 475484. doi:10.1007/s11031-014-9392-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, J.S., Ozer, D.J., & Rosenthal, R. (2017). Goal conflict and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 66, 2737. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.12.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafsson, H., Carlin, M., Podlog, L., Stenling, A., & Lindwall, M. (2018). Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 118125. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Healy, L.C., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J.L. (2016). Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centered investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(12), 10101014. PubMed ID: 27025304 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Healy, L.C., Ntoumanis, N., Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J., & Paine, N. (2014). Goal striving and well-being in sport: The role of contextual and personal motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36(5), 446459. PubMed ID: 25356609 doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0261

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM Corp. (2019). SPSS statistics for windows (Version 26). Armonk, NY: Author.

  • Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., & Locke, E.A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: The role of self-concordance and goal attainment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 257268. PubMed ID: 15769236 doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.2.257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, R.E., Mansell, W., & Wood, A.M. (2015). Goal conflict and well-being: A review and hierarchical model of goal conflict, ambivalence, self-discrepancy and self-concordance. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 212229. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, H.J., Wesson, M.J., Hollenbeck, J.R., & Alge, B.J. (1999). Goal commitment and the goal-setting process: Conceptual clarification and empirical synthesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 885896. PubMed ID: 10639908 doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.6.885

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koletzko, S.H., Herrmann, M., & Brandstätter, V. (2015). Unconflicted goal striving: Goal ambivalence as a mediator between goal self-concordance and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(1), 140156. PubMed ID: 25422314 doi:10.1177/0146167214559711

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langan, E., Hodge, K., McGowan, S., Carney, S., Saunders, V., & Lonsdale, C. (2016). The influence of controlled motivation alongside autonomous motivation: Maladaptive, buffering, or additive effects? International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 5771. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2015.1016084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lebeau, J.-C., Gatten, H., Perry, I., Wang, Y., Sung, S., & Tenenbaum, G. (2018). Is failing the key to success? A randomized experiment investigating goal attainment effects on cognitions, emotions, and subsequent performance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38, 19. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Louro, M.J., Pieters, R., & Zeelenberg, M. (2007). Dynamics of multiple-goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(2), 174193. PubMed ID: 17645394 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.93.2.174

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mageau, G.A., & Vallerand, R.J. (2003). The coach–athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(11), 883904. PubMed ID: 14626368 doi:10.1080/0264041031000140374

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinent, G., & Decret, J.-C. (2015). Motivational profiles among young table-tennis players in intensive training settings: A latent profile transition analysis. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(3), 268287. doi:10.1080/10413200.2014.993485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, J.H. (2014). Handbook of biological statistics (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Sparky House Publishing.

  • Miquelon, P., & Vallerand, R.J. (2006). Goal motives, well-being, and physical health: Happiness and self-realization as psychological resources under challenge. Motivation and Emotion, 30(4), 259272. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9043-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (1998–2017). MPlus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén

  • Ntoumanis, N., Healy, L.C., Sedikides, C., Duda, J., Stewart, B., Smith, A., … Bond, J. (2014). When the going gets tough: The “Why” of goal striving matters. Journal of Personality, 82(3), 225236. PubMed ID: 23750603 doi:10.1111/jopy.12047

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., Healy, L.C., Sedikides, C., Smith, A.L., & Duda, J.L. (2014). Self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals: The role of goal motives. Self and Identity, 13(5), 594612. PubMed ID: 25104918 doi:10.1080/15298868.2014.889033

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., & Sedikides, C. (2018). Holding on to the goal or letting it go and moving on? A tripartite model of goal striving. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(5), 363368. doi:10.1177/0963721418770455

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nylund, K.L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B.O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535569. doi:10.1080/10705510701575396

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riediger, M., & Freund, A.M. (2004). Interference and facilitation among personal goals: Differential associations with subjective well-being and persistent goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(12), 15111523. PubMed ID: 15536236 doi:10.1177/0146167204271184

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rouse, P.C., Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, J.J., Ntoumanis, N., Metsios, G.S., Yu, C.-A., Kitas, G.D., … Duda, J.L. (2015). Measuring the positive psychological well-being of people with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional validation of the subjective vitality scale. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 17(1), 312. PubMed ID: 26542467 doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0827-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Frederick, C. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65(3), 529565. PubMed ID: 9327588 doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanjuán, P., & Ávila, M. (2019). The mediating role of coping strategies on the relationships between goal motives and affective and cognitive components of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(4), 10571070. doi:10.1007/s10902-018-9987-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, K.M., & Elliot, A.J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482497. PubMed ID: 10101878 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.482

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, K.M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 152165. PubMed ID: 11195887 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.152

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, K.M., Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It’s both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(4), 475486. PubMed ID: 15070476 doi:10.1177/0146167203261883

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A.L. (2016). Coach behaviors and goal motives as predictors of attainment and well-being in sport. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803634-1.00019-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2014). An examination of goal motives and athletes’ self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45(6), 538558. doi:10.7352/IJSP2014.45.538

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. (2007). Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: Adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(6), 763782. PubMed ID: 18089903 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.6.763

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. (2010). An Investigation of coach behaviors, goal motives, and implementation intentions as predictors of well-being in Sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 1733. doi:10.1080/10413200903403190

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A.L., Ntoumanis, N., Duda, J.L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). Goal striving, coping, and well-being: A prospective investigation of the self-concordance model in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 124145. PubMed ID: 21451174 doi:10.1123/jsep.33.1.124

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson.

  • Van den Broeck, A., Lens, W., Witte, H.D., & Coillie, H.V. (2013). Unraveling the importance of the quantity and the quality of workers’ motivation for well-being: A person-centered perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(1), 6978. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2012.11.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Rens, F.E.C.A., Ashley, R.A., & Steele, A.R. (2019). Well-being and performance in dual careers: The role of academic and athletic identities. The Sport Psychologist, 33(1), 4251. doi:10.1123/tsp.2018-0026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J.C.K., Morin, A.J.S., Ryan, R.M., & Liu, W.C. (2016). Students’ motivational profiles in the physical education context. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38(6), 612630. PubMed ID: 28033022 doi:10.1123/jsep.2016-0153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, G.A., & Kibowski, F. (2016). Latent class analysis and latent profile analysis In L.A. Jason, & D.S. Glenwick (Eds.), Handbook of methodological approaches to community-based research: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods (pp. 143152). Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wormington, S.V., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2017). A new look at multiple goal pursuit: The promise of a person-centered approach. Educational Psychology Review, 29(3), 407445. doi:10.1007/s10648-016-9358-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 412 412 194
Full Text Views 89 89 34
PDF Downloads 46 46 23