Athletes’ Psychological Needs and Coaches’ Interpersonal Behaviors: A Within-Person Latent Profile Analysis

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Ulster University, Jordanstown Campus
  • 2 Ulster University, Magee Campus
  • 3 Dublin Business School
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

Basic psychological needs theory is limited by variable-centered studies focused on linear relationships between perceived needs-supportive/controlling coach behaviors. Therefore, latent profile analysis was used to determine if heterogenous profiles emerged from the interactive effects of needs-supportive and -controlling coach behaviors and the subsequent association with sport-specific mental health outcomes (i.e., burnout and subjective vitality). A total of 685 athletes took part (age = 23.39 years, male = 71%), and the latent profile analysis revealed five novel, diverse profiles, labeled as “supportive-developmental,” “needs-indifferent,” “overly critical,” “harsh-controlling,” and “distant-controlling” coaches. The profiles predicted significant mental health variance (adjusted R2 = .15–.24), wherein the “supportive-developmental” profile scored most favorably on 90% of the outcomes. The largest mean differences were observed against the “harsh-controlling” (n = 5), “overly critical” (n = 3), and “distant controlling” (n = 2) profiles. Overall, latent profile analysis revealed substantial nuance in athletes’ social contexts, predicting variance in mental health. Needs-supportive interventions are needed for “overly critical,” “harsh controlling,” and “distant controlling” athlete profiles.

Shannon and Breslin are with the Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Inst., Ulster University, Jordanstown Campus, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland, and the Inst. of Mental Health Sciences, Ulster University, Magee Campus, Derry, Northern Ireland. Prentice is with the Dublin Business School, Dublin, Ireland.

Shannon (s.shannon@ulster.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table 1 (PDF 68 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 2 (PDF 13 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 3 (PDF 183 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 4 (PDF 142 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 5 (PDF 74 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 6 (PDF 78 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 7 (PDF 143 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 8 (PDF 144 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 9 (PDF 300 KB)
    • Supplementary Table 10 (PDF 32 KB)
  • Adie, J.W., Duda, J.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2008). Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: A test of basic needs theory. Motivation and Emotion, 32(3), 189199. doi:10.1007/s11031-008-9095-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adie, J.W., Duda, J.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2012). Perceived coach-autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the well-and ill-being of elite youth soccer players: A longitudinal investigation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(1), 5159. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.07.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balaguer, I., González, L., Fabra, P., Castillo, I., Mercé, J., & Duda, J.L. (2012). Coaches’ interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well-and ill-being of young soccer players: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 16191629. PubMed ID: 23062028 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.731517

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R.M., Bosch, J.A., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(11), 14591473. PubMed ID: 21700794 doi:10.1177/0146167211413125

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R.M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 75102. PubMed ID: 21451172 doi:10.1123/jsep.33.1.75

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2009). A review of controlling motivational strategies from a self-determination theory perspective: Implications for sports coaches. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(2), 215233. doi:10.1080/17509840903235330

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bechter, B.E., Dimmock, J.A., Howard, J.L., Whipp, P.R., & Jackson, B. (2018). Student motivation in high school physical education: A latent profile analysis approach. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 40(4), 206216. PubMed ID: 30193559 doi:10.1123/jsep.2018-0028

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belz, J., Kleinert, J., Ohlert, J., Rau, T., & Allroggen, M. (2018). Risk for depression and psychological well-being in German national and state team athletes—Associations with age, gender, and performance level. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12(2), 160178. doi:10.1123/jcsp.2016-0024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhavsar, N., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Gucciardi, D.F., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., Ryan, R.M., & Bartholomew, K.J. (2019). Conceptualizing and testing a new tripartite measure of coach interpersonal behaviors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 44, 107120.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breslin, G., & Leavey, G. (2019). Mental health and well-being interventions in sport: Research, theory and practice. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Breslin, G., Shannon, S., Haughey, T., Donnelly, P., & Leavey, G. (2017). A systematic review of interventions to increase awareness of mental health and well-being in athletes, coaches and officials. Systematic Reviews, 6(1), 177. PubMed ID: 28859666 doi:10.1186/s13643-017-0568-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breslin, G., Smith, A., Donohue, B., Donnelly, P., Shannon, S., Haughey, T., … Leavey G. (2019). International consensus statement on psychosocial and policy-related approaches to mental health awareness programmes in sport. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 5(1), e000585.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheon, S.H., Reeve, J., Lee, J., & Lee, Y. (2015). Giving and receiving autonomy support in a high-stakes sport context: A field-based experiment during the 2012 London Paralympic Games. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 19, 5969. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.02.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheon, S.H., Reeve, J., Lee, Y., Ntoumanis, N., Gillet, N., Kim, B.R., & Song, Y.-G. (2019). Expanding autonomy psychological need states from two (satisfaction, frustration) to three (dissatisfaction): A classroom-based intervention study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(4), 685702. doi:10.1037/edu0000306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, T.L., & Zhang, T. (2019). The roles of coaches, peers, and parents in athletes’ basic psychological needs: A mixed-studies review. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 14, 569588.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costa, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Bartholomew, K. (2015). Predicting the brighter and darker sides of interpersonal relationships: Does psychological need thwarting matter? Motivation and Emotion, 39(1), 1124. doi:10.1007/s11031-014-9427-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delrue, J., Reynders, B., Broek, G.V., Aelterman, N., De Backer, M., Decroos, S., & Haerens, L. (2019). Adopting a helicopter-perspective towards motivating and demotivating coaching: A circumplex approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 40, 110126. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esdar, W., Gorges, J., & Wild, E. (2016). The role of basic need satisfaction for junior academics’ goal conflicts and teaching motivation. Higher Education, 72(2), 175190. doi:10.1007/s10734-015-9944-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London, UK: Sage.

  • Fin, G., Moreno-Murcia, J.A., León, J., Baretta, E., & Júnior, R.J.N. (2019). Interpersonal autonomy support style and its consequences in physical education classes. PLoS One, 14(5), e0216609. PubMed ID: 31107894 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216609

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fortier, M.S., Duda, J.L., Guerin, E., & Teixeira, P.J. (2012). Promoting physical activity: Development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 20. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-20

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foskett, R.L., & Longstaff, F. (2018). The mental health of elite athletes in the United Kingdom. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(8), 765770. PubMed ID: 29289498 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.11.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerber, M., Gustafsson, H., Seelig, H., Kellmann, M., Ludyga, S., Colledge, F., & Bianchi, R. (2018). Usefulness of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms among young elite athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 39, 104113. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafsson, H., Carlin, M., Podlog, L., Stenling, A., & Lindwall, M. (2018). Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 118125. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafsson, H., DeFreese, J.D., & Madigan, D.J. (2017). Athlete burnout: Review and recommendations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 109113. PubMed ID: 28813331 doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haerens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., De Meester, A., Delrue, J., Tallir, I., Vande Broek, G., … Aelterman, N. (2018). Different combinations of perceived autonomy support and control: Identifying the most optimal motivating style. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(1), 1636. doi:10.1080/17408989.2017.1346070

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagger, M.S., & Weed, M. (2019). DEBATE: Do interventions based on behavioral theory work in the real world? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 16(1), 36. PubMed ID: 31023328 doi:10.1186/s12966-019-0795-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancox, J.E., Quested, E., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J.L. (2017). Teacher-created social environment, basic psychological needs, and dancers’ affective states during class: A diary study. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 137143. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.033

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henson, J.M., Reise, S.P., & Kim, K.H. (2018). Detecting mixtures from structural model differences using latent variable mixture modeling: A comparison of relative model fit statistics. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(2), 202226.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaakkola, T., Wang, C.J., Soini, M., & Liukkonen, J. (2015). Students’ perceptions of motivational climate and enjoyment in Finnish physical education: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 14(3), 477. PubMed ID: 26336332

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M. (2012). Youth athletes’ perception of autonomy support from the coach, peer motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in sport setting: One-year effects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3) 257262. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keyes, C.L. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539. PubMed ID: 15982151 doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langan, E., Toner, J., Blake, C., & Lonsdale, C. (2015). Testing the effects of a self-determination theory-based intervention with youth Gaelic football coaches on athlete motivation and burnout. The Sport Psychologist, 29(4), 293301. doi:10.1123/tsp.2013-0107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C., Wang, C.J., & Kee, Y.H. (2013). Burnout and its relations with basic psychological needs and motivation among athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(5), 692700.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C.H. (2010). Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: The role of passion and achievement goals. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(Suppl. 3), 10291047. doi:10.2466/05.06.07.14.PMS.110.C.1029-1047

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindwall, M., Ivarsson, A., Weman-Josefsson, K., Jonsson, L., Ntoumanis, N., Patrick, H., & Teixeira, P. (2017). Stirring the motivational soup: Within-person latent profiles of motivation in exercise. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 4. PubMed ID: 28088208 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0464-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Longo, Y., Alcaraz-Ibáñez, M., & Sicilia, A. (2018). Evidence supporting need satisfaction and frustration as two distinguishable constructs. Psicothema, 30(1), 7481. PubMed ID: 29363474

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Longo, Y., Gunz, A., Curtis, G.J., & Farsides, T. (2016). Measuring need satisfaction and frustration in educational and work contexts: The need satisfaction and frustration scale (NSFS). Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 295317. doi:10.1007/s10902-014-9595-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lonsdale, C., Hodge, K., & Rose, E. (2009). Athlete burnout in elite sport: A self-determination perspective. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(8), 785795. PubMed ID: 19437185 doi:10.1080/02640410902929366

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundqvist, C. (2011). Well-being in competitive sports—The feel-good factor? A review of conceptual considerations of well-being. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(2), 109127. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2011.584067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madigan, D.J., Gustafsson, H., Smith, A., Raedeke, T., & Hill, A.P. (2019). The BASES expert statement on burnout in sport. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, 61, 67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magnusson, D. (1998). The logic and implications of a person-oriented approach. In R.B. Cairns, L.R. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual (pp. 3364). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Trautwein, U., & Morin, A.J.S. (2009). Classical latent profile analysis of academic self-concept dimensions: Synergy of person- and variable-centered approaches to theoretical models of self-concept. Structural Equation Modeling, 16(2), 191225. doi:10.1080/10705510902751010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matosic, D., & Cox, A.E. (2014). Athletes’ motivation regulations and need satisfaction across combinations of perceived coaching behaviors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(3), 302317. doi:10.1080/10413200.2013.879963

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moesch, K., Kenttä, G., Kleinert, J., Quignon-Fleuret, C., Cecil, S., & Bertollo, M. (2018). FEPSAC position statement: Mental health disorders in elite athletes and models of service provision. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38, 6171. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2012). MPlus: Statistical analysis with latent variables--User’s guideLos Angeles, CAMuthén & Muthén

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myers, N.D., Ntoumanis, N., Gunnell, K.E., Gucciardi, D.F., & Lee, S. (2018). A review of some emergent quantitative analyses in sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 70100. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317356

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neubauer, A.B., Voss, A., & Ditzen, B. (2018). Exploring need dynamics within and across days in everyday life: A three-level analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 77, 101112. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2018.10.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Reeve, J., & Cheon, S.H. (2018). Need supportive communication: Implications for motivation in sport, exercise, and physical activity. In B. Jackson, J. Dimmock, & J. Compton (Eds.), Persuasion and communication in sport, exercise, and physical activity (pp. 155169). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., Quested, E., & Hancox, J. (2017). The effects of training group exercise class instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 27(9), 10261034. PubMed ID: 27283879 doi:10.1111/sms.12713

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pacewicz, C.E., Mellano, K.T., & Smith, A.L. (2019). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between social constructs and athlete burnout. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43, 155164.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quested, E., Ntoumanis, N., Viladrich, C., Haug, E., Ommundsen, Y., Van Hoye, A., & Duda, J.L. (2013). Intentions to drop-out of youth soccer: A test of the basic needs theory among European youth from five countries. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 395407. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.830431

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raedeke, T. D. (1997). Is athlete burnout more than just stress? A sport commitment perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(4), 396417.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raedeke, T.D., & Smith, A.L. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of an athlete burnout measure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23(4), 281306. PubMed ID: 28682196 doi:10.1123/jsep.23.4.281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reardon, C.L., Hainline, B., Aron, C.M., Baron, D., Baum, A.L., Bindra, A., … Derevensky, J.L. (2019). Mental health in elite athletes: International Olympic Committee consensus statement (2019). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(11), 667699. PubMed ID: 31097450 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2019-100715

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rejeski, W.J., & Brawley, L.R. (1988). Defining the boundaries of sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 2(3), 231242. doi:10.1123/tsp.2.3.231

  • Rice, S.M., Purcell, R., De Silva, S., Mawren, D., McGorry, P.D., & Parker, A.G. (2016). The mental health of elite athletes: A narrative systematic review. Sports Medicine, 46(9), 13331353. PubMed ID: 26896951 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0492-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rocchi, M., & Pelletier, L. (2018). How does coaches’ reported interpersonal behavior align with athletes’ perceptions? Consequences for female athletes’ psychological needs in sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7(2), 141154. doi:10.1037/spy0000116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L., Cheung, S., Baxter, D., & Beaudry, S. (2017). Assessing need-supportive and need-thwarting interpersonal behaviours: The Interpersonal Behaviours Questionnaire (IBQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 423433. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L., & Desmarais, P. (2017). The validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ) in sport. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 21(1), 1525. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2016.1242488

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 319338. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior. In O.P. John, R.W. Robbins, & L.A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 3, pp. 654678). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Frederick, C. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65(3), 529565. PubMed ID: 9327588 doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schinke, R.J., Stambulova, N.B., Si, G., & Moore, Z. (2018). International society of sport psychology position stand: Athletes’ mental health, performance, and development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(6), 622639. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2017.1295557

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shannon, S., Brennan, D., Hanna, D., Younger, Z., Hassan, J., & Breslin, G. (2018). The effect of a school-based intervention on physical activity and well-being: A non-randomised controlled trial with children of low socio-economic status. Sports Medicine-Open, 4(1), 16. PubMed ID: 29679164 doi:10.1186/s40798-018-0129-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shannon, S., Breslin, G., Haughey, T., Sarju, N., Neill, D., Lawlor, M., & Leavey, G. (2019). Predicting student-athlete and non-athletes’ intentions to self-manage mental health: Testing an integrated behaviour change model. Mental Health & Prevention, 13, 9299. doi:10.1016/j.mhp.2019.01.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SurveyMonkey, LLC. (2012). SurveyMonkey®. Palo Alto, CA: Author.

  • Vallerand, R.J. (2001). A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (Vol. 2, pp. 263319). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 326 326 222
Full Text Views 53 53 29
PDF Downloads 30 30 13