Examining the Relationship Between Exercise-Related Cognitive Errors, Exercise Schema, and Implicit Associations

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Brock University
  • | 2 University of Alberta
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $166.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $221.00

To better understand exercise-related cognitive errors (ECEs) from a dual processing perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine their relationship to two automatic exercise processes. It was hypothesized that ECEs would account for more variance than automatic processes in predicting intentions, that ECEs would interact with automatic processes to predict intentions, and that exercise schema would distinguish between different levels of ECEs. Adults (N = 136, Mage = 29 years, 42.6% women) completed a cross-sectional study and responded to three survey measures (ECEs, exercise self-schema, and exercise intentions) and two computerized implicit tasks (the approach/avoid task and single-category Implicit Association Test). ECEs were not correlated with the two implicit measures; however, ECEs moderated the relationship between approach tendency toward exercise stimuli and exercise intentions. Exercise self-schema were differentiated by ECE level. This study expands our knowledge of ECEs by examining their relationship to different automatic and reflective processes.

Locke is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada. Berry is with the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Locke (Slocke@brocku.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Amireault, S., & Godin, G. (2015). The Godin-Shephard leisure-time physical activity questionnaire: Validity evidence supporting its use for classifying healthy adults into active and insufficiently active categories. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(2), 604622. PubMed ID: 25799030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura A (1997) Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman Publishers.

  • Banting, L.K., Dimmock, J.A., & Lay, B.S. (2009). The role of implicit and explicit components of exerciser self-schema in the prediction of exercise behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 8086.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bar-Haim Y., Lamy D., Pergamin L., Bakermans-Kranenburg M.J., & van IJzendoorn, M.H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 124. PubMed ID: 17201568

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford Press.

  • Berry, T.R., Strachan, S.M., & Verkooijen, K.T. (2014). The relationship between exercise schema and identity. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 4963.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradley. (2018). Bots and data quality on crowdsourcing platforms. https://blog.prolific.co/botsand-data-quality-on-crowdsourcing-platforms/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, R., & Antoniewicz, F. (2016). Affective evaluations of exercising: The role of automatic-reflective evaluation discrepancy. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 38(6), 631638. PubMed ID: 28033023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, R., & Ekkekakis, P. (2018). Affective reflective theory of physical inactivity and exercise. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 48,(1) 4858.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calitri, R., Lowe, R., Eves, F., & Bennett, P. (2009). Associations between visual attention, implicit and explicit attitude and behaviour for physical activity. Psychology and Health, 24,(9) 11051123. PubMed ID: 20205048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheval, B., Radel, R., Neva, J.L., Boyd, L.A., Swinnen, S.P., Sander, D., & Boisgontier, M.P. (2018). Behavioral and neural evidence of the rewarding value of exercise behaviors: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 48(6), 13891404.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheval, B., Sarrazin, P., Isoard-Gautheur, S., Radel, R., & Friese, M. (2015). Reflective and impulsive processes explain (in)effectiveness of messages promoting physical activity: A randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 34(1), 10. PubMed ID: 25133840

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheval, B., Sarrazin, P., & Pelletier, L. (2014). Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis. PLoS One, 9(12), e115238. PubMed ID: 25526596 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chevance, G., Bernard, P., Chamberland, P.E., & Rebar, A. (2019). The association between implicit attitudes toward physical activity and physical activity behaviour: A systematic review and correlational meta-analysis, Health Psychology Review, 13(3), 248276. PubMed ID: 31117901

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chevance, G., Stephan, Y., Héraud, N., & Boiché, J. (2018). Interaction between self-regulation, intentions and implicit attitudes in the prediction of physical activity among persons with obesity. Health Psychology, 37(3), 257. PubMed ID: 29504789

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conroy, D.E., & Berry, T.R. (2017). Automatic affective evaluations of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 45(4), 230237. PubMed ID: 28704217

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drapeau, M.& Perry, J.C. (2010). The cognitive errors rating scales (3rd ed., Unpublished manual).  McGill University.

  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.

  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175191.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gawronski, B., Brannon, S.M., & Bodenhausen, G.V. (2017). The associative-propositional duality in the representation, formation, and expression of attitudes. In R. Deutsch, B. Gawronski, & W. Hofmann (Eds.), Reflective and impulsive determinants of human behavior (pp. 103118).  Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10(3), 141146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenwald, A.G., Nosek, B.A., & Banaji, M.R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannan, T.E., Moffitt, R.L., Neumann, D.L., & Kemps, E. (2019). Implicit approach–avoidance associations predict leisure-time exercise independently of explicit exercise motivation. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 8(2), 210222.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes, A.F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approached (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobs, D.R., Jr., Ainsworth, B.E., Hartman, T.J., & Leon, A.S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25(1), 8191. PubMed ID: 8423759

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karpinski, A., & Steinman, R.B. (2006). The single category Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91,(1) 1632. PubMed ID: 16834477

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kendzierski, D. (1988). Self‐schemata and exercise. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 9(1), 4559. 10.1207/s15324834basp0901_4

  • Kendzierski, D.K. (1990). Exercise self-schemata: Cognitive and behavioral correlates. Health Psychology, 9(1), 6982.

  • Kendzierski, D.K. (1994). Schema theory: An information processing focus. In R.K. Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 137159). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krieglmeyer, R., & Deutsch, R. (2010). Comparing measures of approach–avoidance behavior: The manikin task vs. two versions of the joystick task. Cognition and Emotion, 24(5), 810828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, S.R., & Brawley, L.R. (2016). Development and initial validity of the exercise-related cognitive errors questionnaire. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 23, 8289.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, S.R.,& Brawley, L.R. (2017). Perceptions of exercise consistency: Relation to exercise-related cognitive errors and cognitions. Journal of Health Psychology, 22(5), 684694.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, S.R., & Brawley, L.R. (2018). Making one-sided exercise decisions: The influence of exercise-related cognitive errors. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(9), 12401249. PubMed ID: 27270683

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKinnon, D.P., & Luecken, L.J. (2008). How and for whom? Mediation and moderation in health psychology. Health Psychology, 27(2S), S99.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(2), 6378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, D.J., Freedson, P.S., & Kline, G.M. (1994). Comparison of activity levels using the Caltrac accelerometer and five questionnaires. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(3), 376382. PubMed ID: 8183104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milman, E., & Drapeau, M. (2012). Cognitive errors in cognitive behavioural therapy: A survey of researchers and practitioners and an assessment of the face validity of the cognitive error scale. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioural Psychotherapies, 12(2), 125138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millisecond. (n.d). Millisecond test library. https://www.millisecond.com/download/library/

  • Moffitt, R.L., Kemps, E., Hannan, T.E., Neumann, D.L., Stopar, S.P., & Anderson, C.J. (2019). Implicit approach biases for physically active lifestyle cues. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(6), 833849.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Padin, A.C., Emery, C.F., Vasey, M., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. (2017). Self-regulation and implicit attitudes toward physical activity influence exercise behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 39(4), 237248. PubMed ID: 28937320

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peer, E., Brandimarte, L, Samat, S., & Acquisti, A. (2017). Beyond the Turk: Alternative platforms for crowdsourcing behavioral research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 153163.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sacco, W.P., & Beck, A.T. (1995). Cognitive theory and therapy. In E.E. Beckham& W.R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 329351). Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220247. PubMed ID: 15454347

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnik, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 583 583 54
Full Text Views 52 52 4
PDF Downloads 78 78 6