The Influence of Environmental Constraints in 360° Videos on Decision Making in Soccer

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Lisa Musculus German Sport University Cologne

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Jurek Bäder German Sport University Cologne

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Lukas Sander German Sport University Cologne

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Tobias Vogt German Sport University Cologne
Waseda University

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Decision making is an important prerequisite of soccer expertise. Beyond expertise, considering the effects of environmental constraints on decision-making processes could help specify existing theories. To address this gap, expert and nonexpert soccer players were enrolled to test how environmental constraints affect decision-making processes. Environmental constraints were experimentally manipulated: Opponent pressure was implemented by presenting a close opponent player in soccer scenes, time constraint was implemented by providing short time intervals for making the decision, and first-person perspective was implemented by using 360° videos. The experts outperformed the nonexperts, and the results showed significant main effects of time constraint and opponent pressure, but not perspective. The players’ option and decision quality improved under the time constraint but were negatively affected by opponent pressure. The negative effects of opponent pressure were especially true under limited time and in third-person perspective. The results, alternative manipulations, and implications of environmental effects are discussed for decision-making research.

Musculus and Sander are with the Dept. of Performance Psychology, Inst. of Psychology, and Bäder and Vogt, the Inst. of Professional Sport Education and Sport Qualifications, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Vogt is also with the Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Musculus (l.musculus@dshs-koeln.de) is corresponding author.

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