The Impact of Video Speed on the Estimation of Time Duration in Sport

Click name to view affiliation

Lisa-Marie Schütz Heidelberg University

Search for other papers by Lisa-Marie Schütz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Geoffrey Schweizer Heidelberg University

Search for other papers by Geoffrey Schweizer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
, and
Henning Plessner Heidelberg University

Search for other papers by Henning Plessner in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
Restricted access

The authors investigated the impact of video speed on judging the duration of sport performance. In three experiments, they investigated whether the speed of video presentation (slow motion vs. real time) has an influence on the accuracy of time estimation of sporting activities (n1 = 103; n2 = 100; n3 = 106). In all three studies, the time estimation was more accurate in real time than in slow motion, in which time was overestimated. In two studies, the authors initially investigated whether actions in slow motion are perceived to last longer because the distance they cycled or ran is perceived to be longer (n4 = 92; n5 = 106). The results support the hypothesis that the duration of sporting activities is estimated more accurately when they are presented in real time than in slow motion. Sporting officials’ judgments that require accurate time estimation may thus be biased when based on slow-motion displays.

The authors are with the Inst. of Sports and Sports Sciences, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Schütz (lisa-marie.schuetz@issw.uni-heidelberg.de) is corresponding author.
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Caruso, E.M., Burns, Z.C., & Converse, B.A. (2016). Slow motion increases perceived intent. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(33), 92509255. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1603865113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catteeuw, P., Gilis, B., Jaspers, A., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010). Training of perceptual-cognitive skills in offside decision making. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(6), 845861. PubMed ID: 21282841 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.32.6.845

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catteeuw, P., Gilis, B., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010). Perceptual-cognitive skills in offside decision making: Expertise and training effects. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(6), 828844. PubMed ID: 21282840 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.32.6.828

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deutscher Fußball Bund. (2017). Grundsätzliche Informationen zum Video-Assistenten. Author. https://www.dfb.de/sportl-strukturen/schiedsrichter/video-assistent/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175– 191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). SAGE.

  • IFAB—The International Football Association Board. (2020). The laws of the game 2020/21. Author.

  • James, W. (1890). The perception of reality. Principles of Psychology, 2, 283324.

  • Loeffler, J., Cañal-Bruland, R., Schroeger, A., Tolentino-Castro, J.W., & Raab, M. (2018). Interrelations between temporal and spatial cognition: The role of modality-specific processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2609. PubMed ID: 30622495 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02609

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthews, W.J., & Meck, W.H. (2014). Time perception: The bad news and the good. WIREs Cognitive Science, 5(4), 429446. PubMed ID: 25210578 https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1298

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthews, W.J., & Meck, W.H. (2016). Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 142(8), 865907. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Put, K., Wagemans, J., Pizzera, A., Williams, A.M., Spitz, J., Savelsbergh, G.J.P., & Helsen, W.F. (2016). Faster, slower or real time? Perceptual-cognitive skills training with variable video speeds. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 25, 2735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spitz, J., Moors, P., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W.F. (2018). The impact of video speed on the decision-making process of sports officials. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 3(1), 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-018-0105-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spitz, J., Put, K., Wagemans, J., Williams, M.A., & Helsen, W.F. (2017). Does slow motion impact on the perception of foul play in football? European Journal of Sport Science, 17(6), 748756. PubMed ID: 28350233 https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1304580

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spitz, J., Wagemans, J., Memmert, D., Williams, A.M., & Helsen, W.F. (2020). Video assistant referees (VAR): The impact of technology on decision making in association football referees. Journal of Sports Sciences, 39(2), 147153. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1809163

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wells, G.L., & Windschitl, P.D. (1999). Stimulus sampling and social psychological experimentation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(9), 11151125. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672992512005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Rugby. (2015a). Clarification on the role of the TMO at Rugby World Cup 2015. Rugby World Cup. http://www.rugbyworldcup.com/news/96575

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Rugby. (2015b). Laws of the game of rugby union. Incorporating the playing charter. Author.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 5373 621 22
Full Text Views 423 133 5
PDF Downloads 439 97 7