Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”
Address all correspondence to P. Chelladurai, Faculty of Physical Education, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada N6A 3K7.