The areas of leadership and organizational culture continue to capture the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Some suggest that these two areas might hold the key to understanding and predicting organizational effectiveness. Others remain skeptical, offering that effectiveness is determined by a variety of factors, many of which fall beyond the scope of the leader's influence or the culture of the organization. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the relationships that exist between transformational leadership (measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, organizational culture (measured by the Culture Strength Assessment), and organizational effectiveness (measured by the Target Population Satisfaction Index) in the campus recreation programs of both the Big Ten and Mid-American Conferences (N = 19). The directors of these programs were given considerable levels of job autonomy to lead their respective programs as well as the opportunity to alter and/or imbed a desired culture during their administration. Significant differences were uncovered in both conferences for executive transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, no significant relationship was uncovered between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. A significant relationship was discovered between organizational culture strength and organizational effectiveness.
W. James Weese is with the Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada N9B 3P4.