Prejudice, Patriarchy, and the PGA: Defensive Discourse Surrounding the Shoal Creek and Augusta National Controversies

in Journal of Sport Management

Click name to view affiliation

Gina DaddarioShenandoah University

Search for other papers by Gina Daddario in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Brian J. WigleyShenandoah University

Search for other papers by Brian J. Wigley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

This study examines the discourse associated with the membership policies at Shoal Creek and Augusta National Golf Clubs. Get-away havens for wealthy White males, these clubs became contested terrains when each was scheduled to host a major golf event: the 1990 PGA Championship at Shoal Creek and the 2003 Masters Tournament at Augusta National. At the time of the events in this study, Shoal Creek had a Whites-only membership policy and Augusta National a male-only policy, which it maintains today. Controversy ensued when the chairs of each club made disparaging comments to the press about these excluded groups. Two parallel areas were considered in our comparative analysis: how the commercial sponsors responded to the controversies, and how the club chairs and their supporters used the rhetorical strategy of apologia to defend themselves and restore the public image of golf. Our analysis reveals the differences in how the cultural constructs of race and gender were negotiated in each case.

Daddario is with the Department of Mass Communications and Wigley is with the Department of Kinesiology, both at Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA 22601.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1412 491 103
Full Text Views 73 8 1
PDF Downloads 24 7 2