The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Tsuji is with the Dept. of Education Leadership and Counseling Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164. Bennett is with the Dept. of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. Leigh is with the Dept. of Marketing, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.