In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.
Masayuki Yoshida is with Biwako Seikei Sport College in Otsu, Shiga, Japan. Brian Gordon is with the University of Wisconsin- La Crosse in La Crosse, WI. Makoto Nakazawa is with the University of Tsukuba in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Rui Biscaia is with CIPER, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. Address author correspondence to Masayuki Yoshida at firstname.lastname@example.org.