A Hierarchical Approach for Predicting Sport Consumption Behavior: A Personality and Needs Perspective

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

The present study was conducted to explore the influence of personality and needs of sport consumers on their sport consumption behavior. The proposed hierarchical model of sport consumption hypothesizes that individuals’ personality, need traits, and involvement interact through hierarchical stages and ultimately influence sport participation and spectatorship. The results of the structural model test using 471 sport consumers indicate that conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion were positively related to achievement need, whereas extraversion and neuroticism were significantly related to affiliation need. Conscientiousness was found to be positively related to arousal need. Needs for arousal and affiliation were significantly related to sport spectatorship involvement, whereas need for affiliation was related to sport participation involvement. Interestingly, sport spectating and participation are significantly related to each other in both involvement and behavioral intention levels. The results can offer valuable insights in understanding sport consumption behavior and developing effective segmentation strategies.

Yong Jae Ko and Michael Sagas are with the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Yonghwan Chang is with the Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. Wonseok Jang is with the Department of Advertising, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. John Otto Spengler is with the Department of Health Promotion and Community Health Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Address author correspondence to Yong Jae Ko at yongko@hhp.ufl.edu.
Journal of Sport Management
Article Sections
References
  • AlderferC.P. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance 4142175. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(69)90004-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AlujaA.GarcíaO. & GarcíaL.F. (2003). Relationships among extraversion, openness to experience, and sensation seeking. Personality and Individual Differences 35671680. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00244-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AppelbaumL.G.CainM.S.DarlingE.F.StantonS.J.NguyenM.T. & MitroffS.R. (2012). What is the identity of a sports spectator? Personality and Individual Differences 52422427. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AtkinsonJ.W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review 64359372. PubMed doi:10.1037/h0043445

  • BagozziR.P.BaumgartnerH. & YiY. (1992). State versus action orientation and the theory of reasoned action: An application to coupon usage. Journal of Consumer Research 18505518. doi:10.1086/209277

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BagozziR.P. & YiY. (1990). Assessing method variance in multitrait-multimethod matrices: The case of self-reported affect and perceptions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology 75547560. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.5.547

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BaumgartnerH. (2002). Toward a personology of the consumer. Journal of Consumer Research 29286292. doi:10.1086/341578

  • BeatonA.A.FunkD.C.RidingerL. & JordanJ. (2011). Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Sport Management Review 14(2) 126140. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlackI.R.OrganG.C. & MortonP. (2010). The effect of personality on response to sexual appeals. European Journal of Marketing 4414531477. doi:10.1108/03090561011062925

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BosnjakM.GalesicM. & TutenT. (2007). Personality determinants of online shopping: Explaining online purchase intentions using a hierarchical approach. Journal of Business Research 60597605. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurroughsJ.E. & RindfleischA. (2002). Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective. Journal of Consumer Research 29(3) 348370. doi:10.1086/344429

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BusatoV.V.PrinsF.J.ElshoutJ.J. & HamakerC. (2000). Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences 2910571068. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00253-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CampbellD.T. & FiskeD. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin 5681105. PubMed doi:10.1037/h0046016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangT.Z. & WildtA.R. (1994). Price, product information, and purchase intention: An empirical study. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 221627. doi:10.1177/0092070394221002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChatzisarantisN.L. & HaggerM.S. (2008). Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology and Health 23347367. PubMed doi:10.1080/14768320601185866

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CialdiniR.B.BordenR.J.ThorneA.WalkerM.R.FreemanS. & SloanL.R. (1976). Basking in reflected glory: Three (football) field studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(3) 366380. doi:10.1177/0146167207311280

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenJ. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112155159. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

  • ConnS.R. & RiekeM.L. (1994). The 16PF fifth edition technical manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConnerM. & AbrahamC. (2001). Conscientiousness and the theory of planned behavior: Toward a more complete model of the antecedents of intentions and behavior. Personality Sociology Psychology Bulletin 2715471561. doi:10.1177/01461672012711014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConnerM.RodgersW. & MurrayT. (2007). Conscientiousness and the intention-behavior relationship: Predicting exercise behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 29518533. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.29.4.518

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CostaP.T. & McCraeR.R. (1988). Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54853863. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.853

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CostaP.T. & McCraeR.R. (1992). “Normal personality inventories in clinical assessment: General requirements and the potential for using the NEO personality inventory”: Reply. Psychological Assessment 42022. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.20

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CostaP.T.McCraeR.R. & DyeD.A. (1991). Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO personality inventory. Personality and Individual Differences 12887898. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90177-D

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeciE.L. & RyanR.M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality 19(2) 109134. doi:10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeYoungC.G.PetersonJ.B. & HigginsD.M. (2002). Higher-order factors of the Big Five predict conformity: Are there neuroses of health?Personality and Individual Differences 33533552. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00171-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiehmR. & ArmatasC. (2004). Surfing: An avenue for socially acceptable risk-taking, satisfying needs for sensation seeking and experience seeking. Personality and Individual Differences 36663677. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00124-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DollingerS.J. (2003). Need for uniqueness, need for cognition, and creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior 3799116. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00828.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DonavanD.T.BrownT.J. & MowenJ.C. (2004). Internal benefits of service-worker customer orientation: Job satisfaction, commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Marketing 68(1) 128146. doi:10.1509/jmkg.68.1.128.24034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DonavanD.T.CarlsonB.D. & ZimmermanM. (2005). The influence of personality traits on sports fan identification. Sport Marketing Quarterly 143142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EysenckH.J. & EysenckM.W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York, NY: Plenum.

  • ForgasJ.P. (1989). Mood effects on decision-making strategies. Australian Journal of Psychology 41197214. doi:10.1080/00049538908260083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FornellC. & LarckerD.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research 18382388. doi:10.2307/3150980

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GilukT.L. & PostlethwaiteB.E. (2015). Big Five personality and academic dishonesty: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences 725967. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoldbergL.R. (1995). What the hell took so long? Donald Fiske and the Big-Five factor structure. In P.E.Shrout & S.T.Fiske (Eds.) Personality research methods and theory: A Festschrift honoring Donald W. Fiske (pp. 2943). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GomezR. (2006). Gender invariance of the five-factor model of personality among adolescents: A mean and covariance structure analysis approach. Personality and Individual Differences 41755765. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.03.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoslingS.D.RentfromP.J. & SwannW.B.Jr. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality 37504528. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrazianoW.G. & TobinR.M. (2002). Agreeableness: Dimension of personality or social desirability artifact?Journal of Personality 70695728. PubMed doi:10.1111/1467-6494.05021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GurvenM.von RuedenC.MassenkoffM.KaplanH. & Lero VieM. (2013). How universal is the Big Five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 104354370. PubMed doi:10.1037/a0030841

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HairJ.F.BlackW.C.BabinB.J.AndersonR.E. & TathamR.L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HavitzM.E. & MannellR.C. (2005). Enduring involvement, situational involvement, and flow in leisure and non-leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research 37152177.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillC.A. (1987). Affiliation motivation: People who need people… but in different ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5210081018. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.1008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillsP. & ArgyleM. (2001). Happiness, introversion-extraversion and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences 30595608. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00058-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoganR. & HoganJ. (1992). Hogan personality inventory manual. Tulsa, OK: Hogan Assessment Systems.

  • HolbrookM.B. & HirschmanE.C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research 9132140. doi:10.1086/208906

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuangC.-H.LeeL.-Y. & ChangM.-L. (2007). The influences of personality and motivation on exercise participation and quality of life. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 3511891210. doi:10.2224/sbp.2007.35.9.1189

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JackS.J. & RonanK.R. (1998). Sensation seeking among high- and low-risk sports participants. Personality and Individual Differences 2510631083. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00081-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JacobsC. (2015 April). 82.7 million Americans totally inactive in 2014. Retrieved from http://www.physicalactivitycouncil.com/PressRelease/

    • Export Citation
  • Jensen-CampbellL.A. & GrazianoW.G. (2001). Agreeableness as a moderator of interpersonal conflict. Journal of Personality 69323362. 11339802 doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JudgeT.A.HigginsC.ThoresenC.J. & BarrickM.R. (1999). The Big Five personality traits, general mental ability, and career success across the life span. Personnel Psychology 52621652. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00174.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KerrJ.H. & CoxT. (1991). Arousal and individual differences in sport. Personality and Individual Differences 1210751085. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90037-C

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoY.J.KimY.K. & ValacichJ. (2010). Martial arts participation: Consumer motivation. International Journal of Sport Marketing and Sponsorship 11220. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-11-02-2010-B002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoY.J.ParkH. & ClaussenC.L. (2008). Action sports participation: Consumer motivation. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 9111124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KotlerP. & ArmstrongG. (1996). Principles of Marketing (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

  • LandersR.N. & LounsburyJ.W. (2006). An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to Internet usage. Computers in Human Behavior 22283293. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.06.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LarsenR.J. & KetelaarT. (1989). Extraversion, neuroticism and susceptibility to positive and negative mood induction procedures. Personality and Individual Differences 1012211228. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(89)90233-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeR.M.DeanB.L. & JungK.R. (2008). Social connectedness, extraversion, and subjective well-being: Testing a mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences 45414419. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiH.DaughertyT. & BioccaF. (2002). Impact of 3-D advertising on product knowledge, brand attitude, and purchase intention: The mediating role of presence. Journal of Advertising 31(3) 4357. doi:10.1080/00913367.2002.10673675

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LicataJ.W.MowenJ.C.HarrisE.G. & BrownT.J. (2003). On the trait antecedents and outcomes of service worker job resourcefulness: A hierarchical model approach. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 31 256–271. doi:10.1177/0092070303031003004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LlewellynD.J. & SanchezX. (2008). Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 9413426. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarklandD. & HardyL. (1993). The exercise motivations inventory: Preliminary development and validity of a measure of individuals’ reasons for participation in regular physical exercise. Personality and Individual Differences 15289296. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90219-S

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MaslowA.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 50(4) 370396. doi:10.1037/h0054346

  • McClellandD.C. (1987). Human motivation. New York, NY: CUP Archive.

  • McCraeR.R. & CostaP.T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 528190. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCraeR.R. & CostaP.T. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist 52509516. PubMed doi:10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.509

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonaldM.A.MilneG.R. & HongJ. (2002). Motivational factors for evaluating sport spectator and participant markets. Sport Marketing Quarterly 11100113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGeheeN.G.YoonY. & CárdenasD. (2003). Involvement and travel for recreational runners in North Carolina. Journal of Sport Management 17(3) 305324. doi:10.1123/jsm.17.3.305

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MehmetogluM. (2012). Personality effects on experiential consumption. Personality and Individual Differences 529499. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.09.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C. (2000). The 3M model of motivation and personality: Theory and empirical applications to consumer behavior. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C. (2004). Exploring the trait of competitiveness and its consumer behavior consequences. Journal of Consumer Psychology 145263. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp1401&2_7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C.FangX. & ScottK. (2009). A hierarchical model approach for identifying the trait antecedents of general gambling propensity and of four gambling-related genres. Journal of Business Research 6212621268. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.11.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C.ParkS. & ZablahA. (2007). Toward a theory of motivation and personality with application to word-of-mouth communications. Journal of Business Research 60590596. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C. & SpearsN. (1999). Understanding compulsive buying among college students: A hierarchical approach. Journal of Consumer Psychology 8407430. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp0804_03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MowenJ.C. & SujanH. (2005). Volunteer behavior: A hierarchical model approach for investigating its trait and functional motive antecedents. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15170182. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp1502_9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NelsonM.C.Gordon-LarsenP.SongY. & PopkinB.M. (2006). Built and social environments: Associations with adolescent overweight and activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31109117. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.03.026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’BrienE.J. & EpsteinS. (1974). Naturally occurring changes in self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology 1384386. doi:10.1177/0146167274001001129

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’ConnorM.C. & PaunonenS.V. (2007). Big Five personality predictors of post-secondary academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences 43971990. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PaunonenS.V. & AshtonM.C. (2013). On the prediction of academic performance with personality traits: A replication study. Journal of Research in Personality 47778781. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.08.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PayneM. (2015 February). NFL dominated sports fans’ televisions in 2014, beating World Cup, Olympics and other coverage, Nielson report says. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/early-lead/wp/2015/02/11/nfl-dominated-sports-fans-televisions-in-2014-beating-world-cup-olympics-and-other-coverage-nielsen-report-says/

    • Export Citation
  • PayneS.C.YoungcourtS.S. & BeaubienJ.M. (2007). A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net. Journal of Applied Psychology 92128150. PubMed doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.128

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PetrovaP.K. & CialdiniR.B. (2005). Fluency of consumption imagery and the backfire effects of imagery appeals. Journal of Consumer Research 32442452. doi:10.1086/497556

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PhillipsJ.M. & GullyS.M. (1997). Role of goal orientation, ability, need for achievement, and locus of control in the self-efficacy and goal-setting process. Journal of Applied Psychology 82792802. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.792

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PodsakoffM.P.MacKenzieB.S.LeeJ.Y. & PodsakoffP.N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88879903. PubMed doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PodsakoffM.P.MacKenzieB.S. & PodsakoffP.N. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology 63539569. PubMed doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Development Core Team (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RammstedtB.KemperC.J. & BorgI. (2013). Correcting Big Five personality measurements for acquiescence: An 18-country cross-cultural study. European Journal of Personality 27(1) 7181. doi:10.1002/per.1894

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E.CourneyaK.S. & JonesL.W. (2005). The theory of planned behavior and lower-order personality traits: Interaction effects in the exercise domain. Personality and Individual Differences 38251265. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.04.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RhodesR.E. & SmithN.E.I. (2006). Personality correlates of physical activity: A review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 40958965. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.028860

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobinsonM.J. & TrailG.T. (2005). Relationships among spectator gender, motives, points of attachment, and sport preference. Journal of Sport Management 195880. doi:10.1123/jsm.19.1.58

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RyanR.M. & DeciE.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist 55(1) 6878. PubMed doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ScottK. & MowenJ.C. (2007). Travelers and their traits: A hierarchical model approach. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 6146157. doi:10.1002/cb.214

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShamirB. & RuskinH. (1984). Sport participation vs. sport spectatorship: Two modes of leisure behavior. Journal of Leisure Research 16921.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShankM.D. & BeasleyF.M. (1998). Fan or fanatic: Refining a measure of sport involvements. Journal of Sport Behavior 21435443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TellegenA. & WallerN.G. (1987 August). Re-examining basic dimensions of natural language trait descriptors. Paper presented at the 95th Annual Convention of the American Psychological AssociationNew York, NY.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TrailG. & JamesJ. (2001). The motivation scale for sport consumption: Assessment of the scale’s psychometric properties. Journal of Sport Behavior 24108127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TrailG.T.KimY.K.KwonH.H.HarrolleM.G.Braunstein-MinkoveJ.R. & DickR. (2012). The effects of vicarious achievement on BIRGing and CORFing: Testing moderating and mediating effects of team identification. Sport Management Review 15345354. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WannD.L. & BranscombeN.R. (1995). Influence of level of identification with a group and physiological arousal on perceived intergroup complexity. British Journal of Social Psychology 34223235. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1995.tb01060.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WannD.L.DunhamM.D.ByrdM.L. & KeenanB.L. (2004). The five-factor model of personality and the psychological health of highly identified sport fans. International Sports Journal 8(2) 2836.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WannD.L.GrieveF.G.ZapalacR.K. & PeaseD.G. (2008). Motivational profiles of sport fans of different sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly 17619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WannD.L.SchraderM.P. & WilsonA.M. (1999). Sport fan motivation: Questionnaire validation, comparisons by sport, and relationship to athletic motivation. Journal of Sport Behavior 22114139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WatsonD. & ClarkL.A. (1992). On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five-factor model. Journal of Personality 60441476. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00980.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WatsonD. & HubbardB. (1996). Adaptational style and dispositional structure: Coping in the context of the ?ve-factor model. Journal of Personality 64737774. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00943.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WigginsJ.S. & TrapnellP.D. (1997). Personality structure: The return of the Big Five. In R.HoganJ.A.Johnson & S.R.Briggs (Eds.) Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 737765). Orlando, FL: Academic.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonK.E. & DishmanR.K. (2015). Personality and physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences 72230242. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZuckermanM. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimum level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • ZuckermanM. (1983). Sensation seeking and sports. Personality and Individual Differences 4288292. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(83)90150-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 139 139 23
Full Text Views 24 24 5
PDF Downloads 22 22 4
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By