Existence of Mixed Emotions During Consumption of a Sporting Event: A Real-Time Measure Approach

in Journal of Sport Management
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Investigating the existence of mixed emotions within a sport consumer behavior context is the purpose of this study. Two experimental studies with a 4 (game outcome) × 2 (response format) mixed model analysis of covariance were implemented. The authors tested concurrence of two opposite emotions in Study 1 by asking subjects to complete an online continuous measure of happiness/sadness. Subjects reported more mixed emotions while watching a conflicting game outcome, such as a disappointing win and relieving loss, than during a straight game outcome. In Study 2, real-time-based measures of sport consumer emotions appear to have greater validity than recall-based measures of sport consumer emotions. Subjects with real-time-based measures were less likely to report a straight loss as positive and a straight win as negative than those with the retrospective measure. This study provides evidence of mixed emotions; specifically, happiness and sadness can co-occur during sports consumption.

Jun Woo Kim is with Arcadia University, Glenside, PA. Marshall Magnusen is with Baylor University, Waco, TX. Hyun-Woo Lee is with Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.

Address author correspondence to Jun Woo Kim at kimjw@arcadia.edu.
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