Development of the Referee Retention Scale

in Journal of Sport Management
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Building on the current sport officiating research, this study puts forth the Referee Retention Scale. Through a three-phase process, the researchers developed a valid and reliable scale to predict sport officials’ job satisfaction and intention to continue. The first phase consisted of instrument development, whereas the second phase included field testing of referees (n = 253). After exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis, the resultant refined scale from Phases 1 and 2 was then administered to 979 referees in Phase 3. Phase 3 results using confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the seven-factor, 28-item Referee Retention Scale was a valid and reliable tool for measuring and predicting referee retention. The results highlight the importance of considering a variety of factors associated with the referee experience, which include administrator consideration, intrinsic motives, mentoring, remuneration, sense of community, lack of stress, and continuing education. A discussion on how the Referee Retention Scale can help administrators manage and retain sport officials is included.

Ridinger is with the Department of Human Movement Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. Kim is with the Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin, TX. Warner is with the Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. Tingle is with the School of Business, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX.

Address author correspondence to Lynn L. Ridinger at lridinge@odu.edu.
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