Gendered Leadership Networks in the NCAA: Analyzing Affiliation Networks of Senior Woman Administrators and Athletic Directors

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the informal networks of both senior woman administrators (SWAs) and athletic directors (ADs) within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions. Drawing on extant literature citing the underrepresentation of women in sport leadership positions, we incorporate a network approach to build and analyze affiliation networks of SWAs and ADs. Guided by the framework of Leadership in Networks, we argue that the social structures within which ADs and SWAs operate impact opportunities for leader emergence and leadership outcomes. By comparing the AD and SWA affiliation networks, we illustrate the differences in informal networks among men and women leaders in sport, highlighting how informal networks may contribute to the lack of women in sport leadership positions. Previous scholars have long cited an “old boys’ club” as a barrier to women achieving leadership positions, but we argue these studies have largely relied on dispositional evidence rather than methodological and analytical strategies designed specifically to examine relationships and the corresponding network structures. Our results indicate that the SWA network is far less cohesive than the AD networks, and the few women in the AD networks are largely located outside the center of the affiliation networks. Implications regarding the impact of informal networks on the underrepresented nature of women in leadership positions are discussed.

Katz, Walker, and Hindman are with the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Address author correspondence to Matthew Katz at mkatz@isenberg.umass.edu.
Journal of Sport Management
Article Sections
References
  • AckerJ. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender & Society 4(2) 139158. doi:10.1177/089124390004002002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AcostaR.V. & CarpenterL.J. (2014). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal, national study, thirty-seven year update 1977–2014. Retrieved from http://www.acostacarpenter.org

    • Export Citation
  • AlbrechtS.L. (1983). Informal interaction patterns of professional women. In J.R. Gordon (Ed.) Diagnostic approach to organizational behavior (pp. 287290). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BalkundiP. & HarrisonD.A. (2006). Ties, leaders, and time in teams: Strong inference about network structure’s effects on team viability and performance. Academy of Management Journal 494968. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785500

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BalkundiP. & KilduffM. (2006). The ties that lead: A social network approach to leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 17419439. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarnardC.I. (1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • BorgattiS.P. (2002). Netdraw software for network visualization. Lexington, KY: Analytic Technologies.

  • BorgattiS.P. (2005). Centrality and network flow. Social Networks 27(1) 5571. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2004.11.008

  • BorgattiS.P. (2009). 2-Mode concepts in social network analysis. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.). Encyclopedia of complexity and system science (pp. 82798291). New York, NY: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BorgattiS.P.EverettM.G. & FreemanL.C. (2002). UCINET for Windows: Software for social network analysis. Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BorgattiS.P.EverettM.G. & JohnsonJ.C. (2013). Analyzing social networks. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • BorgattiS.P. & FosterP.C. (2003). The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology. Journal of Management 299911013. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00087-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BorgattiS.P. & HalginD.S. (2011a). Analyzing affiliation networks. In P. Carrington & J. Scott (Eds.) The SAGE handbook of social network analysis. London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BorgattiS.P. & HalginD.S. (2011b). On network theory. Organization Science 2211681181. doi:10.1287/orsc.1100.0641

  • BorgattiS.P.MehraA.BrassD.J. & LabiancaG. (2009). Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323892895. PubMed doi:10.1126/science.1165821

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BowerG.G. (2009). Effective mentoring relationships with women in sport: Results of a meta-ethnography. Advancing Women in Leadership Journal 29(3).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrassD.K. (1985). Men’s and women’s networks: A study of interaction patterns and influence in an organization. Academy of Management Journal 28327343. doi:10.2307/256204

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurtonL.J. (2015). Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: A review of research. Sport Management Review 18(2) 155165. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.02.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurtonL.J.BarrC.A.FinkJ.S. & BrueningJ.E. (2009). “Think athletic director, think masculine?”: Examination of the gender typing of managerial subroles within athletic administration positions. Sex Roles 61(5–6) 416426.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarterD.R.DeChurchL.A.BraunM.T. & ContractorN.S. (2015). Social network approach to leadership: An integrative conceptual review. Journal of Applied Psychology 100597622. PubMed doi:10.1037/a0038922

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClaussenC. & LehrC. (2002). Decision-making authority of senior woman administrators. International Journal of Sport Management 3215228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CollierB. & KrautR. (2012). Leading the collective: Social capital and the development of leaders in core-periphery organizations. In T.W. Malone & L. von Ahn (Eds.) Collective intelligence 2012: Proceedings. Boston, MA: The MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CombsG.M. (2003). The duality of race and gender for managerial African American women: Implications of informal social networks on career advancement. Human Resource Development Review 2(4) 385405. doi:10.1177/1534484303257949

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdlingC.HobdariB.RandøyT.StafsuddA. & ThomsenS. (2012). Testing the ‘old boys’ network’: diversity and board interlocks in Scandinavia. In B. Kogut (Ed.) The small worlds of corporate governance (pp. 183201). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EllisD.L.ParentM.M. & SeguinB. (2016). Olympic ambush marketing networks and knowledge transfer: Examining their impact on the institutionalization of anti-ambush marketing legislation. Journal of Sport Management 30(5) 473489. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0205

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElyR.J. & MeyersonD.E. (2000). Theories of gender in organizations: A new approach to organizational analysis and change. Research in Organizational Behavior 22103151. doi:10.1016/S0191-3085(00)22004-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EverettM.G. & BorgattiS.P. (2013). The dual-projection approach for two-mode networks. Social Networks 35204210. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2012.05.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FinkJ.S. (2016). Hiding in plain sight: The embedded nature of sexism in sport. Journal of Sport Management 3017.

  • GrappendorfH. & LoughN. (2006). An endangered species: Characteristics and perspectives from female NCAA Division I athletic directors of both separate and merged athletic departments. The Sport Management and Related Topics Journal 2(2) 620.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrappendorfH.PentA.BurtonL. & HendersonA. (2008). Gender role stereotyping: A qualitative analysis of senior woman administrators’ perceptions regarding financial decision making. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics 12645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenG.P.TiggesL.M. & DiazD. (1999). Racial and ethnic differences in job-search strategies in Atlanta, Boston, and Los Angeles. Social Science Quarterly 80263278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoganR.PerrucciC.C. & BehringerA. (2005). Enduring inequality: Gender and employment incoming in late career. Sociological Spectrum 255377. doi:10.1080/027321790500112

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoffmanJ. (2011). The old boys’ network. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education 5928. doi:10.1179/ssa.2011.5.1.9

  • IbarraH. (1992). Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly 37422447. doi:10.2307/2393451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IbarraH. (1995). Race, opportunity, and diversity of social circles and managerial networks. Social Psychology Quarterly 6091102. doi:10.2307/2787014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KamphoffC.S.ArmentroutS.M. & DriskaA. (2010). The token female: Women’s experiences as Division I collegiate head coaches of men’s teams. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport 3297315. doi:10.1123/jis.3.2.297

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KanterR.M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York, NY: Basic Books.

  • KatzM. & HeereB. (2013). Leaders and followers: An exploration of the notion of scale-free networks within a new brand community. Journal of Sport Management 27271287. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.4.271

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KatzM. & HeereB. (2015). Empowerment within brand communities: Overcoming the Achilles’ heel of scale-free networks. Sport Management Review 18370383. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.10.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KogutB. (2012). The small world of corporate governance: An Introduction. In B. Kogut (Ed.) The small worlds of corporate governance. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrackhardtD. (1994). Graph theoretical dimensions of informal organizations. Computational Organization Theory 89(112) 123140.

  • KrackhardtD. & HansonJ.R. (1993). Informal networks: The company behind the chart. Harvard Business Review 71104111. PubMed

  • KrackhardtD. & SternR.N. (1988). Informal networks and organizational crises: An experimental simulation. Social Psychology Quarterly 51123140. doi:10.2307/2786835

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LovettD.J. & LowryC.D. (1994). “Good old boys” and “good old girls” clubs: Myth or reality? Journal of Sport Management 82735. doi:10.1123/jsm.8.1.27

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannixE. & NealeM.A. (2005). What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 6(2) 3155. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1529-1006.2005.00022.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarinA. & WellmanB. (2011). Social network analysis: An introduction. In P. Carrington & J. Scott (Eds.) The Sage handbook of social network analysis (pp. 1125). London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonaldS. (2011). What’s in the ‘old boys’ network? Accessing social capital in gendered and racialized networks. Social Networks 33317330. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2011.10.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonaldS.LinN. & AoD. (2009). Networks of opportunity: Gender, race, and job leads. Social Problems 56385402. doi:10.1525/sp.2009.56.3.385

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGuireG.M. (2002). Gender, race, and the shadow structure: A study of informal networks and inequality in a work organization. Gender & Society 16(3) 303322. doi:10.1177/0891243202016003003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhersonJ.M. & Smith-LovinL. (1987). Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status distance and the composition of face-to-face groups. American Sociological Review 52370379. doi:10.2307/2095356

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MehraA.DixonA.L.BrassD.J. & RobertsonB. (2006). The social network ties of group leaders: Implications for group performance and leader reputation. Organization Science 17(1) 6479. doi:10.1287/orsc.1050.0158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MehraA.KilduffM. & BrassD.J. (1998). At the margins: A distinctiveness approach to the social identity and social networks of underrepresented groups. Academy of Management Journal 41(4) 441452. doi:10.2307/257083

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MizruchiM.S. (1996). What do interlocks do? An analysis, critique, and assessment of research on interlocking directorates. Annual Review of Sociology 22(1) 271298. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.271

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MooreG. (1992). Gender and informal networks in state government. Social Science Quarterly 73(1) 4661.

  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2006). Division I manual 2006–2007: Constitution operating bylaws administrative bylaws. Indianapolis, IN: NCAA Educational Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NealZ. (2014). The backbone of bipartite projections: Inferring relationships from co-authorship, co-sponsorship, co-attendance, and other co-behaviors. Social Networks 398497. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2014.06.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NiekampA.MerckenL.A.G.HoebeC.J.P.A. & Dukers-MuijrersN.H.T.M. (2013). A sexual affiliation network of swings, heterosexuals practicing risk behaviours that potentiate the spread of sexually transmitted infections: A two-mode approach. Social Networks 35223236. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2013.02.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParkerM. & WelchE.W. (2013). Professional networks, science ability, and gender determinants of three types of leadership in academic science and engineering. The Leadership Quarterly 24332348. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PastorJ.C.MeindlJ.R. & MayoM.C. (2002). A network effects model of charisma attributions. Academy of Management Journal 45410420. doi:10.2307/3069355

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PentA.GrappendorfH. & HendersonA. (2007). Do they want more? An analysis of NCAA senior woman administrators’ participation in financial decision making. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education 1157174. doi:10.1179/ssa.2007.1.2.157

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PodolnyJ.M. & BaronJ.N. (1997). Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review 62673693. doi:10.2307/2657354

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PrellC. (2012). Social network analysis: History theory and methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • RaphaelyD. (2003April 8). An analysis of the senior woman administrator position within NCAA athletics departments (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of San Francisco San Francisco CA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobinsG. (2015). Doing social network research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • RobinsG. & AlexanderM. (2004). Small worlds among interlocking directors: Network structure and distance in bipartite graphs. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory 10(1) 6994. doi:10.1023/B:CMOT.0000032580.12184.c0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RoethlisbergerF.J.DicksonW.J.WrightH.A. & PforzheimerC.H. (1939). Management and the worker: An account of a research program conducted by the Western Electric Company Hawthorne Works Chicago. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SalonerG. (1985). Old boy networks as screening mechanisms. Journal of Labor Economics 3255267. doi:10.1086/298055

  • ScottJ. (2000). Social network analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • ShawS. (2006). Scratching the back of “Mr X”: Analyzing gendered social processes in sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management 20510534. doi:10.1123/jsm.20.4.510

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShawS. & FrisbyW. (2006). Can gender equity be more equitable? Promoting an alternative frame for sport management research, education, and practice. Journal of Sport Management 20483509. doi:10.1123/jsm.20.4.483

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StanglJ.M. & KaneM.J. (1991). Structural variables that offer explanatory power for the underrepresentation of women coaches since title IX: The case of homologous reproduction. Sociology of Sport Journal 8(1) 4760. doi:10.1123/ssj.8.1.47

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TiellB. & DixonM.A. (2008). Roles and tasks of the senior woman administrator (SWA) in intercollegiate athletics: A role congruity perspective. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education 2339361. doi:10.1179/ssa.2008.2.3.339

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WalkerN.A. & BoppT. (2011). The underrepresentation of women in the male-dominated sport workplace: Perspectives of female coaches. Journal of Workplace Rights 15(1) 4764. doi:10.2190/WR.15.1.d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WalkerN.A. & Sartore-BaldwinM. (2013). Hegemonic masculinity and the institutionalized bias toward women in men’s collegiate basketball: What do men think? Journal of Sport Management 27303315. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.4.303

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WarnerS.BowersM.T. & DixonM.A. (2012). Team dynamics: A social network perspective. Journal of Sport Management 265366. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.1.53

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WassermanS. & FaustK. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 178 178 38
Full Text Views 13 13 0
PDF Downloads 7 7 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By