It’s Powerful, Legitimate, and Urgent, but Is It Equitable? Stakeholder Claims Within the Attributes of Stakeholder Salience in Sport

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

Managers must collect and prioritize claims made by their stakeholders as they decide the direction of their organization. Previous research has focused on stakeholders’ use of power, legitimacy, and urgency to prioritize their claims over others. Fewer studies have examined the perspectives of stakeholders and how they aligned their responses with elements of stakeholder theory in the hopes of gaining salience with management. Additionally, scholars have requested further examination of other themes beyond the established categories of stakeholder salience. This study aimed to investigate how stakeholders would respond with power, legitimacy, and urgency-related claims when faced with changes to their organization’s governing structure. We utilized stakeholder theory and the established attributes of stakeholder salience (i.e., power, legitimacy, and urgency) to examine the perceptions of Division II college coaches and their responses to recently approved National Collegiate Athletic Association legislative changes. In addition to the three previously established stakeholder attributes, equity-related claims made by stakeholders emerged, extending the stakeholder theory research.

Huml is with the Department of Kinesiology & Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. Hambrick and Hums are with the Department of Health & Sport Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Nite is with the Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

Address author correspondence to Matt R. Huml at matt.huml@ttu.edu.
Journal of Sport Management
Article Sections
References
  • AgleB.R.MitchellR.K. & SonnenfeldJ.A. (1999). Who matters to CEOs? An investigation of stakeholder attributes and salience, corporate performance, and CEO values. Academy of Management Journal42507525. doi:10.2307/256973

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BartelsL.K.NadlerJ.T.KufahlK. & PyattJ. (2013). Fifty years after the Civil Rights Act: Diversity-management practices in the field. Industrial and Organizational Psychology6450457. doi:10.1111/iops.12083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BravemanP. & GruskinS. (2003). Defining equity in health. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health57254258. PubMed doi:10.1136/jech.57.4.254

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BridouxF. & StoelhorstJ.W. (2014). Microfoundations for stakeholder theory: Managing stakeholders with heterogeneous motives. Strategic Management Journal35107125. doi:10.1002/smj.2089

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrueningJ.E. & DixonM.A. (2007). Work-family conflict in coaching II: Managing role conflict. Journal of Sport Management21471496. doi:10.1123/jsm.21.4.471

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrueningJ.E. & DixonM.A. (2008). Situating work-family negotiations within a life course perspective: Insights on the gendered experiences of NCAA Division I head coaching mothers. Sex Roles581023. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9350-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CapranicaL.PiacentiniM.F.HalsonS.MyburghK.H.OgasawaraE. & Millard-StaffordM. (2013). The gender gap in sport performance: Equity influences equality. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance899103. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.1.99

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClarksonM.B.E. (1995). A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review2092117.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ComeauxE. (2015). Practitioner views of college head coaches: A stakeholder management perspective. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education9102116. doi:10.1179/1935739715Z.00000000038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CunninghamG.B. (2002). Examining the relationship among Miles and Snow’s strategic types and measures of organizational effectiveness in NCAA Division I athletic departments. International Review for the Sociology of Sport37159175. doi:10.1177/1012690202037002003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DarcyS. & DowseL. (2013). In search of a level playing field-the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability & Society28393407. doi:10.1080/09687599.2012.714258

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DonaldsonT. & PrestonL.E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review206591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EesleyC. & LenoxM.J. (2006). Firm responses to secondary stakeholder action. Strategic Management Journal27765781. doi:10.1002/smj.536

  • ElkingtonJ. (1999). Cannibals with forks. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society.

  • FassinY. (2009). The stakeholder model refined. Journal of Business Ethics84113135. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9677-4

  • FerkinsL. & ShilburyD. (2015). The stakeholder dilemma in sport governance: Toward the notion of “stakeowner”. Journal of Sport Management2993108. doi:10.1123/JSM.2013-0182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreemanR.E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston, MA: Harper Collins.

  • FreemanR.E. (2010). Managing for stakeholders: Trade-offs or value creation. Journal of Business Ethics9679. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0935-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreemanR.E.WicksA.C. & ParmarB. (2004). Stakeholder theory and “the corporate objective revisited”. Organization Science15364369. doi:10.1287/orsc.1040.0066

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FriedmanM.T. & MasonD.S. (2004). A stakeholder approach to understanding economic development decision making: Public subsidies for professional sport facilities. Economic Development Quarterly18236254. doi:10.1177/0891242404265795

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FroomanJ. (1999). Stakeholder influence strategies. Academy of Management Review24191205.

  • GibsonK. (2000). The moral basis of stakeholder theory. Journal of Business Ethics26245257. doi:10.1023/A:1006110106408

  • HautboisC.ParentM.M. & SéguinB. (2012). How to win a bid for major sporting events? A stakeholder analysis of the 2018 Olympic Winter Games French bid. Sport Management Review15263275. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2012.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeffernanJ. & O’BrienD. (2010). Stakeholder influence strategies in bidding for a professional sport franchise license. Sport Management Review13255268. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.01.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HendricksonB. (2013). DII Management Council ponders coaches’ census answers. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/media-center/news/dii-management-council-ponders-coaches’-census-answers

    • Export Citation
  • HeugensP.P. & van OosterhoutH. (2002). The confines of stakeholder management: Evidence from the Dutch manufacturing sector. Journal of Business Ethics40387403. doi:10.1023/A:1020807101387

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoffmanA.J. (1999). Institutional evolution and change: Environmentalism and the U.S. chemical industry. Academy of Management Journal42351371. doi:10.2307/257008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HumlM.R.HambrickM.E. & HumsM.A. (2016). Coaches’ perceptions of the reduction of athletic commitment for Division II student-athletes: Development and validation of a measure of athletic/academic balance. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport9303325. doi:10.1123/jis.2015-0055

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HumlM.R.HancockM.G. & BergmanM.J. (2014). Additional support or extravagant cost? Student-athletes’ perceptions on athletic academic centers. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics7410430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JayakumarU.M. & ComeauxE. (2016). The cultural cover-up of college athletics: How organizational culture perpetuates an unrealistic and idealized balancing act. The Journal of Higher Education87488515. doi:10.1080/00221546.2016.11777411

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JonesT.M.FelpsW. & BigleyG.A. (2007). Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture. Academy of Management Review32137155. doi:10.5465/AMR.2007.23463924

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KihlL.A.LebermanS. & SchullV. (2010). Stakeholder constructions of leadership in intercollegiate athletics. European Sport Management Quarterly10241275. doi:10.1080/16184740903559917

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaplumeA.O.SonparK. & LitzR.A. (2008). Stakeholder theory: Reviewing a theory that moves us. Journal of Management3411521189. doi:10.1177/0149206308324322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeslieL.M.ManchesterC.F. & DahmP.C. (2017). Why and when does the gender gap reverse? Diversity goals and the pay premium for high potential women. Academy of Management Journal60402432. doi:10.5465/amj.2015.0195

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MagnessV. (2008). Who are the stakeholders now? An empirical examination of the Mitchell, Agle, and Wood theory of stakeholder salience. Journal of Business Ethics83177192. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9610-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MahonyD.F.HumsM.A. & RiemerH.A. (2002). Distributive justice in intercollegiate athletics: Perceptions of athletic directors and athletic board chairs. Journal of Sport Management16331356. doi:10.1123/jsm.16.4.331

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MahonyD.F.HumsM.A. & RiemerH.A. (2005). Bases for determining need: Perspectives of intercollegiate athletic directors and athletic board chairs. Journal of Sport Management19170192. doi:10.1123/jsm.19.2.170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MehranH. (1995). Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance. Journal of Financial Economics38163184. doi:10.1016/0304-405X(94)00809-F

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MilesM.B. & HubermanM. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded resource book (2nd ed.). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • MilesS. (2017). Stakeholder theory classification: A theoretical and empirical evaluation of definitions. Journal of Business Ethics142437459. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2741-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MitchellR.K.AgleB.R. & WoodD.J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review22853886.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoormanA.M. & OsborneB. (2015). Are institutions of higher education failing to protect students? An analysis of Title IX’s sexual violence protections and college athletics. Marquette Sports Law Review26545582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2010a). Division II “Life in the Balance” initiative: An overview of four proposals for the 2010 NCAA Convention. Indianapolis, IN: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2010b). Phase II of the Life in the Balance initiative. Indianapolis, IN: Author.

  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2016). NCAA Division I manual. Indianapolis, IN: Author.

  • NevilleB.A.BellS.J. & WhitwellG.J. (2011). Stakeholder salience revisited: Refining, redefining, and refueling an underdeveloped conceptual tool. Journal of Business Ethics102357378. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0818-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NevilleB.A. & MengucB. (2006). Stakeholder multiplicity: Toward an understanding of the interactions between stakeholders. Journal of Business Ethics66377391. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-0015-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NiteC. (2017). Message framing as institutional maintenance: The National Collegiate Athletic Association’s institutional work of addressing legitimate threats. Sport Management Review20338351. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2016.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParentM.M. (2008). Evolution and issue patterns for major-sport-event organizing committees and their stakeholders. Journal of Sport Management22135164. doi:10.1123/jsm.22.2.135

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParentM.M. (2016). Stakeholder management for sport organisations. In G.B. CunninghamJ.S. Fink & A. Doherty (Eds.) Routledge handbook of theory in sport management (pp. 5768). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParentM.M. & DeephouseD.L. (2007). A case study of stakeholder identification and prioritization by managers. Journal of Business Ethics75123. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9533-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParentM.M. & Smith-SwanS. (2013). Managing major sports events: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • PauleA.L. & GilsonT.A. (2010). Current collegiate experiences of big-time, non-revenue, NCAA athletes. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport3333347. doi:10.1123/jis.3.2.333

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PettijohnL.S.ParkerS.PettijohnC.E. & KentJ.L. (2001). Performance appraisals: Usage, criteria and observations. Journal of Management Development20754771. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000006159

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PfarrerM.D.DecellesK.A.SmithK.G. & TaylorM.S. (2008). After the fall: Reintegrating the corrupt organization. Academy of Management Review33730749. doi:10.5465/AMR.2008.32465757

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PostJ.E.PrestonL.E. & SachsS. (2002). Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder view. California Management Review45628. doi:10.2307/41166151

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RowleyT.J. (1997). Moving beyond dyadic ties: A network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of Management Review22887910.

  • RowleyT.J. & MoldoveanuM. (2003). When will stakeholder groups act? An interest- and identity-based model of stakeholder group mobilization. Academy of Management Review28204219.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaldañaJ. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

  • SchwartzM.S. & CarrollA.B. (2008). Integrating and unifying competing and complementary frameworks: The search for a common core in the business and society field. Business & Society47148186. doi:10.1177/0007650306297942

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SimmonsJ. (2003). Balancing performance, accountability and equity in stakeholder relationships: Towards a more socially responsible HR practice. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management10129140. doi:10.1002/csr.40

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SparveroE.S. & WarnerS. (2013). The price of winning and the impact on the NCAA community. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport6120142. doi:10.1123/jis.6.1.120

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SuchmanM.C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academic of Management Review20571610.

  • TrailG. & ChelladuraiP. (2000). Perceptions of goals and processes of intercollegiate athletics: A case study. Journal of Sport Management14154178. doi:10.1123/jsm.14.2.154

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VerbeckeA. & TungV. (2013). The future of stakeholder management theory: A temporal perspective. Journal of Business Ethics112529543. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1276-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeightE.A.CooperC. & PoppN.K. (2015). The coach-educator: NCAA Division I coach perspectives about an integrated university organizational structure. Journal of Sport Management29510522. doi:10.1123/jsm.2014-0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeightE.A. & CooperC.G. (2011). Bridging the gap: The perceptions of athletic directors and coaches regarding nonrevenue program discontinuation decisions. Journal of Applied Sport Management36173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeightE.A. & HumlM.R. (2016). Education through athletics: An examination of academic courses designed for NCAA athletes. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport9352378. doi:10.1123/jis.2015-0051

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welty PeacheyJ. & BrueningJ. (2011). An examination of environmental forces driving change and stakeholder responses in a Football Championship Subdivision athletic department. Sport Management Review14202219. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welty PeacheyJ.LyrasA.CunninghamG.B.CohenA. & BrueningJ.E. (2015). The influence of sport-for-peace event on prejudice and change agent self-efficacy. Journal of Sport Management29229244. doi:10.1123/jsm.2013-0251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WiechmanS.A. & WilliamsJ. (1997). Relation of athletic identity to injury and mood disturbance. Journal of Sport Behavior20199211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WolfeR.A. & PutlerD.S. (2002). How tight are the ties that bind stakeholder groups? Organization Science136480. doi:10.1287/orsc.13.1.64.544

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WolvertonB. (2014December 11). Payments for athletes? Check. Players with balanced lives? Not so much. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Payments-for-Athletes-Check/150807/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 68 68 10
Full Text Views 3 3 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar