The Effects of Implicit Team Identification (iTeam ID) on Revisit and WOM Intentions: A Moderated Mediation of Emotions and Flow

in Journal of Sport Management
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Through this study, attempts were made to (a) define the concept of implicit team identification (iTeam ID), (b) examine the effects the interactions between iTeam ID and emotions exert on flow, and (c) examine the behavioral consequences of flow in the context of spectator sports. The opponent process and implicit memory theories served as the study’s main theoretical frameworks. An experiment was conducted in which we developed the team identification implicit association test (Team ID IAT) as a measure of iTeam ID and manipulated spectators’ emotions based on their retrospective spectating experiences. We conclude from the findings that anger, fear, and sadness paradoxically enhanced flow experiences and subsequent consumption behaviors for spectators with stronger iTeam ID, whereas happiness was universally appealing regardless of the level of iTeam ID. A recommendation is to strategically create experiences that elicit both positive and negative emotions in spectators to encourage flow.

Chang and Inoue are with the School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Wann is with the Department of Psychology, College of Humanities and Fine Arts, Murray State University, Murray, KY.

Address author correspondence to Yonghwan Chang at changy@umn.edu.
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