Exploring the Patterns of Dual Attitude Changes in the Context of Athlete Endorsement: The Interplay of Fit, Evaluative Conditioning, and Introspection Focus

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

Through this study, the author aimed to elucidate the asymmetrical patterns of dual attitude changes in the context of athlete endorsement. The main experiment included a test of the interactions of: Fit (low vs. high fit) × Evaluative conditioning (endorsement–positive vs. endorsement–negative feelings) × Introspection focus (logics vs. feelings). Based on the results, fit changed explicit attitudes, leaving implicit attitudes unchanged, whereas evaluative conditioning changed implicit attitudes to a greater extent. Introspection focus on logics (feelings) led participants to operate syllogistic inferences (associative evaluations); consequently, the logicality of fit (the conditioned feelings) determined both explicit and implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions. The study helps broaden current understandings of endorsement effectiveness by identifying situations in which dual attitude shifts intentions. Managers should be aware of the manipulability of consumers’ evaluation systems, and it is recommended to strategically employ either logic-reflected or feelings-elicited endorsement campaigns to leverage a brand’s equity.

Chang is with the School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Address author correspondence to Yonghwan Chang at changy@umn.edu.
Journal of Sport Management
Article Sections
References
  • AjzenI. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50179211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Albers-MillerN.D. & StaffordM.R. (1999). An international analysis of emotional and rational appeals in services vs goods advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing 16(1) 4257. doi:10.1108/07363769910250769

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BadenhausenK. (2013March 27). Tiger Woods, Nike and winning. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/kurtbadenhausen/2013/03/27/tiger-woods-nike-and-winning/#52127e796e34

    • Export Citation
  • BeardenW.O.LichtensteinD.R. & TeelJ.E. (1984). Comparison price, coupon, and brand effects on consumer reactions to retail newspaper advertisements. Journal of Retailing 601134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BiscaiaR.CorreiaA.RosadoA.RossS.D. & MarocoJ. (2013). Sport sponsorship: The relationship between team loyalty, sponsorship awareness, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intentions. Journal of Sport Management 27288302. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.4.288

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BohnerG. & DickelN. (2011). Attitude and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology 62391417. PubMed doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131609

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarlsonB.D. & DonavanD.T. (2013). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification. Journal of Sport Management 27193206. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.3.193

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangY. (in press). When infamy becomes fame: The positive side of negative athlete publicity. Journal of Sport Management.

  • ChangY. & KoY.J. (2016). Reconsidering the role of fit in celebrity endorsement: Associative-propositional evaluation (APE) accounts of endorsement effectiveness. Psychology & Marketing 33678691. doi:10.1002/mar.20909

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangY. & KoY.J. (2018). The effects of association strength on attention and product evaluation: Reconsidering endorsement effectiveness. European Journal of Marketing 52(5/6) 12571279. doi:10.1108/EJM-05-2016-0261

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangY.KoY.J.TasciA.AraiA. & KimT.H. (2014). Strategic match of athlete endorsement in global markets: An associative learning perspective. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 154058. doi:10.1108/IJSMS-15-04-2014-B005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangY.WannD.L. & InoueY. (in press). The effects of implicit team identification on revisit and word-of-mouth intentions: A moderated mediation of emotions and flow. Journal of Sport Management.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConeJ. & FergusonJ.M. (2015). He did what? The role of diagnosticity in revising implicit evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 108(1) 3757. PubMed doi:10.1037/pspa0000014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CornwellT.B. & HumphreysM.S. (2013). Memory for sponsorship relationships: A critical juncture in thinking. Psychology & Marketing 30394407. doi:10.1002/mar.20614

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CornwellT.B.HumphreysM.S.MaguireA.M.WeeksC.S. & TellegenC.L. (2006). Sponsorship-linked marketing: The role of articulation in memory. Journal of Consumer Research 33312321. doi:10.1086/508436

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CornwellT.B.WeeksS.C. & RoyP.D. (2005). Sponsorship-linked marketing: Opening the black box. Journal of Advertising 342142. doi:10.1080/00913367.2005.10639194

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DownsJ.S.HolbrookM.B.ShengS. & CranorL.F. (2010). Are your participants gaming the system? Screening Mechanical Turk workers. In Proceedings of the 28th international conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 23992402). New York, NY: ACM. doi:10.1145/1753326.1753688

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DoyleJ.P.LockD.FunkD.C.FiloK. & McDonaldH. (2017). ‘I was there from the start’: The identity-maintenance strategies used by fans to combat the threat of losing. Sport Management Review 20184197. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2016.04.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DoyleJ.P.PentecostR.D. & FunkD.C. (2014). The effect of familiarity on associated sponsor and event brand attitudes following negative celebrity endorser publicity. Sport Management Review 17310323. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2013.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EaglyA.H. & ChaikenS. (1984). Cognitive theories of persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17 pp. 267359). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FazioR.H. (2007). Attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength. Social Cognition 25603637. PubMed doi:10.1521/soco.2007.25.5.603

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FinkJ.S.ParkerH.M.CunninghamG.B. & CuneenJ.C. (2012). Female athlete endorsers: Determinants of effectiveness. Sport Management Review 151322. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FunkD.C. & JamesJ. (2004). The fan attitude network (FAN) model: Exploring attitude formation and change among sport consumers. Sport Management Review 7126. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(04)70043-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & BodenhausenG.V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin 132692731. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GawronskiB. & LeBelE.P. (2008). Understanding patterns of attitude change: When implicit measures show change, but explicit measures do not. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 4413551361. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.04.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GibsonB. (2008). Can evaluative conditioning change attitudes toward mature brands? New evidence from the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Consumer Research 35(1) 178188. doi:10.1086/527341

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwaldA.G. & BanajiM.R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review 102427. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwaldA.G.McGheeD.E. & SchwartzJ.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7414641480. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwaldA.G.PoehlmanT.A.UhlmannE.L.BanajiM.R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 971741. PubMed doi:10.1037/a0015575

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HappeF.CookJ.L. & BirdG. (2017). The structure of social cognition: In(ter)dependence of sociocognitive processes. Annual Review of Psychology 68243267. PubMed doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuX.GawronskiB. & BalasR. (2017). Propositional versus dual-process accounts of evaluative conditioning: The effects of co-occurrence and relational information on implicit and explicit evaluations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 431732. PubMed doi:10.1177/0146167216673351

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HughesS.Barnes-HolmesD. & HouwerJ.D. (2011). The dominance of associative theorizing in implicit attitude research: Propositional and behavioral alternatives. The Psychological Record 61465496. doi:10.1007/BF03395772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KahnemanD. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist 58697720. PubMed doi:10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.697

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimY.LeeH.MagnusenM.J. & KimM. (2015). Factors influencing sponsorship effectiveness: A meta-analytic review and research synthesis. Journal of Sport Management 29408425. doi:10.1123/jsm.2014-0056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KinkhabwalaA. (2011September 12). Unlikely pair: UGG and Tom Brady. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904265504576564950268469030

    • Export Citation
  • KurdiB. & BanajiM.R. (2017). Repeated evaluative pairings and evaluative statements: How effectively do they shift implicit attitudes? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146194213. doi:10.1037/xge0000239

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeJ.S.KwakD.H. & MooreD. (2015). Athletes’ transgressions and sponsor evaluations: A focus on consumers’ moral reasoning strategies. Journal of Sport Management 29672687. doi:10.1123/JSM.2015-0051

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacdougallH.NguyenN.S. & KargA. (2014). Game, set, match: An exploration of congruence in Australian disability sport sponsorship. Sport Management Review 17(1) 7889. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2013.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MasonW. & SuriS. (2012). Conducting behavioral research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Behavior Research 44(1) 123. doi:10.3758/s13428-011-0124-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDanielS.R. & HealdG.R. (2000). Young consumers’ responses to event sponsorship advertisements of unhealthy products: Implications of schema-triggered affect theory. Sport Management Review 3163184. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(00)70084-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MeadeA.W. (2009). FreeIAT: An open-source program to administer the implicit association test. Applied Psychological Measurement 33643. doi:10.1177/0146621608327803

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MikhailitchenkoA.G.TootelianD.H. & MikhailitchenkoG.N. (2012). Exploring saturation levels for sponsorship logos on professional sports shirts: A cross-cultural study. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 1391105.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MinearM. & ParkD.C. (2004). A lifespan database of adult facial stimuli. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 36630633. doi:10.3758/BF03206543

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlsonM.A. & FazioR.H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science 12413417. PubMed doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00376

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PappuR. & CornwellT.B. (2014). Corporate sponsorship as an image platform: Understanding the roles of relationship fit and sponsor–sponsee similarity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 42490510. doi:10.1007/s11747-014-0373-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PettyR.E.CacioppoJ.T. & SchumannD.W. (1983). Central and peripheral route to advertising effectiveness: The moderating role of involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 10135146. doi:10.1086/208954

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RiceD.H.KeltingK. & LutzR.J. (2012). Multiple endorsers and multiple endorsements: The influence of message repetition, source congruence and involvement on brand attitudes. Journal of Consumer Psychology 22249259. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RudmanL.A. (2004). Sources of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science 137982. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00279.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RydellR.J.McConnellA.R. & MackieD.M. (2008). Consequences of discrepant explicit and implicit attitudes: Cognitive dissonance and increased information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 4415261532. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.07.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SatoS.KoY.J.KaplanidouK. & ConnaughtonD.P. (2016). Consumers’ comparative evaluative judgment of athlete endorsers. Journal of Sport Management 30553565. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpeedR. & ThompsonP. (2000). Determinants of sports sponsorship response. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28226238. doi:10.1177/0092070300282004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StrackF. & DeutschR. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review 8220247. PubMed doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StuartE.W.ShimpT.A. & EngleR.W. (1987). Classical conditioning of consumer attitudes: four experiments in an advertising context. Journal of Consumer Research 14334349.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SweldensS.Van OsselaerS.M.J. & JaniszewskiC. (2010). Evaluative conditioning procedures and the resilience of conditioned brand attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research 37473489. doi:10.1086/653656

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WalshP. & WilliamsA. (2017). To extend or not extend a human brand: An analysis of perceived fit and attitudes toward athlete brand extensions. Journal of Sport Management 314460. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0314

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WengerJ.L. & BrownR.O. (2014). Sport fans: Evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams. Psychological Reports 114572584. PubMed doi:10.2466/05.PR0.114k19w1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 55 55 22
Full Text Views 7 7 3
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar