Sport and Happiness: Understanding the Relations Among Sport Consumption Activities, Long- and Short-Term Subjective Well-Being, and Psychological Need Fulfillment

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

Understanding and promoting sport consumer well-being are essential for legitimizing sport in the policy sector and for building long-term relationships with sport consumers. To better understand the relations between sport consumption (i.e., sport participation, sport spectating, and sport media viewing) and long- and short-term subjective well-being, a study was conducted using ecological momentary assessment and multilevel structural equation modeling. Need fulfillment (detachment-recovery, autonomy, achievement, and belonging) was also tested as a key construct explaining the short-term subjective well-being effects associated with sport consumption. Sport participation and sport spectating were found to have positive relationships with long- and short-term subjective well-being; both positive and negative relations were reported for sport media viewing. The four types of needs fulfillment were significant predictors of short-term subjective well-being. The four needs were fulfilled in the three activities, with the exception of achievement need fulfillment in sport media viewing.

Kim is with Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. James is with Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Address author correspondence to Jeeyoon Kim at jkim122@syr.edu.
  • Adie, J.W., Duda, J.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2008). Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30(3), 302–322. PubMed ID: 18648108 doi:10.1123/jsep.30.3.302

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, D.F., & Stone, G.P. (1981). Sport: A search for community. In S.L. Greendorfer & A. Yiannakis (Eds.), Sociology of sport (pp. 164–172). West Point, NY: Leisure Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

  • Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529. PubMed ID: 7777651 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belk, R. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 139–168. doi:10.1086/209154

  • Biddle, S.J. (2000). Emotion, mood and physical activity. In S. Biddle, K. Fox, & S. Boutcher (Eds.), Physical activity and psychological well-being (pp. 63–87). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brajsa-Zganec, A., Merkas, M., & Sverko, I. (2011). Quality of life and leisure activities: How do leisure activities contribute to well-being? Social Indicators Research, 102(1), 81–91. doi:10.1007/s11205-010-9724-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brickman, P., & Campbell, D.T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M.H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory (pp. 287–305). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014). American time use survey. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/tus/

    • Export Citation
  • Butler, J. (1997). The psychic life of power: Theories in subjection. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

  • Chalip, L. (2006). Toward a distinctive sport management discipline. Journal of Sport Management, 20(1), 1–21. doi:10.1123/jsm.20.1.1

  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York, NY: Basic Books.

  • Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. New York, NY: University Rochester Press.

  • Diener, E., Lucas, R.E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective well-being. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 63–73). New York, NY: Oxford University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diener, E.D., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. PubMed ID: 16367493 doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Downward, P., & Rasciute, S. (2011). Does sport make you happy? An analysis of the well-being derived from sports participation. International Review of Applied Economics, 25(3), 331–348. doi:10.1080/02692171.2010.511168

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funk, D.C., Beaton, A., & Alexandris, K. (2012). Sport consumer motivation: Autonomy and control orientations regulating fan behaviours. Sport Management Review, 15(3), 355–367. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.11.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gantz, W., Wang, Z., Paul, B., & Potter, R.F. (2006). Sports versus all comers: Comparing TV sports fans with fans of other programming genres. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(1), 95–118. doi:10.1207/s15506878jobem5001_6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldschmidt, A.B., Wonderlich, S.A., Crosby, R.D., Engel, S.G., Lavender, J.M., Peterson, C.B., … Mitchell, J.E. (2014). EMA of stressful events and negative affect in bulimia nervosa. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 30–39. PubMed ID: 24219182 doi:10.1037/a0034974

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordon, L.V. (1975). The measurement of interpersonal values. Chicago, IL: Science Research Associates, Inc.

  • Heck, R.H., & Thomas, S.L. (2015). An introduction to multilevel modeling techniques. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (1998). Positive moods derived from leisure and their relationship to happiness and personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(3), 523–535. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00082-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hilvoorde, I., Elling, A., & Stokvis, R. (2010). How to influence national pride? The Olympic medal index as a unifying narrative. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 45(1), 87–102. doi:10.1177/1012690209356989

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hobfoll, S.E., & Wells, J.D. (1998). Conservation of resources, stress, and aging. In J. Lomranz (Ed.), Handbook of aging and mental health (pp. 121–134). New York, NY: Springer US.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Humphreys, B.R., & Ruseski, J.E. (2009). Estimates of the dimensions of the sports market in the US. International Journal of Sport Finance, 4(2), 94–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Sato, M., Filo, K., Du, J., & Funk, D.C. (2017). Sport spectatorship and life satisfaction: A multi-country investigation. Journal of Sport Management, 31(4), 419–432. doi:10.1123/jsm.2016-0295

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jang, W., Ko, Y.J., Wann, D.L., & Kim, D. (2017). Does spectatorship increase happiness? The energy perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 31(4), 333–344. doi:10.1123/jsm.2016-0113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahneman, D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N. (2003). Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • Kim, J., Kim, Y.K., & Kim, D.H. (2017). Improving well-being through hedonic, eudaimonic, and social needs fulfillment in sport media consumption. Sport Management Review, 20(3), 309–321. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2016.10.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  • Kwon, H.H., Trail, G.T., & Lee, D.H. (2008). The effects of vicarious achievement and team identification on BIRGing and CORFing. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(4), 209–217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lloyd, K.M., & Auld, C.J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research, 57(1), 43–71. doi:10.1023/A:1013879518210

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K.M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madrigal, R. (2006). Measuring the multidimensional nature of sporting event performance consumption. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(3), 267–292. doi:10.1080/00222216.2006.11950079

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Major, W.F. (2001). The benefits and costs of serious running. World Leisure Journal, 43(2), 12–25.

  • Mardia, K.V. (1985). Mardia’s test of multinormality. In S. Kotz & N.L. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (Vol. 5, pp. 217–221). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First-and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin, 97(3), 562–582. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.97.3.562

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, M.A., Milne, G.R., & Hong, J. (2002). Motivational factors for evaluating sport spectator and participant markets. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11(2), 100–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merz, E.L., & Roesch, S.C. (2011). Modeling trait and state variation using multilevel factor analysis with PANAS daily diary data. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(1), 2–9. PubMed ID: 21516166 doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.11.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mochon, D., Norton, M.I., & Ariely, D. (2008). Getting off the hedonic treadmill, one step at a time: The impact of regular religious practice and exercise on well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(5), 632–642. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2007.10.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (1998–2012). Mplus User’s Guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Author.

  • Newman, D.B., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 555–578. doi:10.1007/s10902-013-9435-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, J.Y., Lonsdale, C., & Hodge, K. (2011). The Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS): Instrument development and initial validity evidence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(3), 257–264. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Passmore, H.A., Howell, A.J., & Holder, M.D. (2017). Positioning implicit theories of well-being within a positivity framework. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1–19. doi:10.1007/s10902-017-9934-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137–152. doi:10.1080/17439760701756946

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., & Podsakoff, N.P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569. PubMed ID: 21838546 doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209–218. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reysen, S., & Branscombe, N.R. (2010). Fanship and fandom: Comparisons between sport and non-sport fans. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(2), 176–193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodriguez, A., Latkova, P., & Sun, Y. (2008). The relationship between leisure and life satisfaction: Activity and need theory. Social Indicators Research, 86(1), 163–175. doi:10.1007/s11205-007-9101-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sato, M., Jordan, J.S., & Funk, D.C. (2015). Distance running events and life satisfaction: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sport Management, 29(4), 347–361. doi:10.1123/jsm.2013-0164

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satorra, A., & Bentler, P.M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C.C. Clogg (Ed.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scollon, C.N., Kim-Pierto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. Strengths and Weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4(1), 5–34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, K.M., & Bettencourt, B. (2002). Psychological need-satisfaction and subjective well-being within social groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41(1), 25–38. doi:10.1348/014466602165036

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, K.M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How to increase and sustain positive emotion: The effects of expressing gratitude and visualizing best possible selves. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 73–82. doi:10.1080/17439760500510676

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shiffman, S., Stone, A.A., & Hufford, M.R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1–32. PubMed ID: 18509902 doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sloan, L.R. (1989). The motives of sports fans. In J.H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play: Social and psychological viewpoints (pp. 175–240). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J.L. (2007). Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: Adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(6), 763–782. PubMed ID: 18089903 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.6.763

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The recovery experience questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204–221. PubMed ID: 17638488 doi:10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sonnentag, S., & Natter, E. (2004). Flight attendants’ daily recovery from work: Is there no place like home? International Journal of Stress Management, 11(4), 366–391. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.11.4.366

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steele, F., Clarke, P., Leckie, G., Allan, J., & Johnston, D. (2017). Multilevel structural equation models for longitudinal data where predictors are measured more frequently than outcomes: An application to the effects of stress on the cognitive function of nurses. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 180(1), 263–283. doi:10.1111/rssa.12191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, H.E., & Kass, R.A. (1979). The latent structure of the need satisfying properties of leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 11(4), 278–291. doi:10.1080/00222216.1979.11969406

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness?: Personality, happiness-increasing strategies, and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 183–225. doi:10.1007/s10902-005-4754-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trail, G.T., Anderson, D.F., & Fink, J.S. (2005). Consumer satisfaction and identity theory: A model of sport spectator conative loyalty. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14(2), 98–111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trail, G.T., & James, J.D. (2015). Sport consumer behavior. Seattle, WA: Sport Consumer Research Consultants Internet Publishing.

  • Tsiotsou, R.H. (2016). Developing a service research agenda in sports. Service Industries Journal. 36(11–12), 473–477.

  • Verduyn, P., Van Mechelen, I., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2011). The relation between event processing and the duration of emotional experience. Emotion, 11(1), 20–28. PubMed ID: 21401221 doi:10.1037/a0021239

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L. (2006). Understanding the positive social psychological benefits of sport team identification: The team identification–social psychological health model. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10(4), 272–296. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.10.4.272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Martin, J., Grieve, F.G., & Gardner, L. (2008). Social connections at sporting events: Attendance and its positive relationship with state social psychological well-being. North American Journal of Psychology, 10(2), 229–237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Melnick, M.J., Russell, G.W., & Pease, D.G. (2001). Sport fans: The psychology and social impact of spectators. New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. PubMed ID: 3397865 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zillman, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B.S. (1989). Enjoyment from sports spectatorship. In J.G. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play: Social and psychological viewpoints (pp. 241–278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 366 366 65
Full Text Views 62 62 12
PDF Downloads 33 33 4