To Play or Not to Play? An Analysis of Dispositions, Gambling, and Daily Fantasy Sport

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $84.00

1 year subscription

USD $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $159.00

2 year subscription

USD $208.00

Following a mega-advertising blitz in the late summer of 2015, daily fantasy sports (DFSs) entered a maturing fantasy sports market as a new, highly accessible, and potentially lucrative alternative to traditional, season-long fantasy sports. The two activities share a name but represent substantially different business models. In the view of some policy makers and state legislatures, DFS appeared to resemble a new form of sports wagering and as a result, several U.S. states banned the activity. The current study examined the consumption behavior differences and gambling-related dispositions of those fantasy participants who play DFS and those who do not. A total of 314 fantasy football participants were surveyed, and the results contribute to what we know about gambling and DFS participation. Although distinct differences were found between the two groups, the overall assessment of the findings suggest DFS participation appears to align more with highly involved traditional, season-long fantasy sports participation than other forms of gambling.

Dwyer is with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA. Drayer is with Temple University. Shapiro is with the University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Address author correspondence to Brendan Dwyer at bdwyer@vcu.edu.
Journal of Sport Management
Article Sections
References
  • 31 U.S.C. § 5362. (2018). Definitions. Prohibitions on funding of unlawful Internet gambling. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/31/5362

    • Export Citation
  • BeckA.T.WrightF.D.NewmanC.F. & LieseB.S. (1993). Cognitive therapy of substance abuse. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  • BernardB.J. & EadeV.H. (2005). Gambling in a fantasy world: An exploratory study of rotisserie baseball games. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal 92942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BernardD. (2013). The NFL’s stance on gambling: A calculated contradiction. UNLV Gaming Law Journal 4273287.

  • BillingsA.C.RuihleyB.J. & YangY. (2017). Fantasy gaming on steroids? Contrasting fantasy sport participation by daily fantasy sport participation. Communication & Sport 5732750. doi:10.1177/2167479516644445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BjergO. (2010). Problem gambling in poker: Money, rationality and control in a skill-based social game. International Gambling Studies 10239254. doi:10.1080/14459795.2010.520330

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlaszczynskiA.CollinsP.FongD.LadouceurR.NowerL.ShafferH.J.VenisseJ.L. (2011). Responsible gambling: General principles and minimal requirements. Journal of Gambling Studies 27565573. PubMed ID: 21359586 doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9214-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoswellJ. (2008). Fantasy sports: A game of skill that is implicitly legal under state law, and now explicitly legal under federal law. Cardoza Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 2512571278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrayS.R.MartinK.A. & WidmeyerW.N. (2000). The relationship between evaluative concerns and sport competition state anxiety among youth skiers. Journal of Sports Sciences 18353361. PubMed ID: 10855681 doi:10.1080/026404100402412

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CallegaroM.BakerR.BethlehemJ.GöritzA.S.KrosnickJ.A. & LavrakasP.J. (2014). Online panel research: A data quality perspective (pp. 122). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanaleN.VienoA.GriffithsM.D.RubaltelliE. & SantinelloM. (2015). How do impulsivity traits influence problem gambling through gambling motives? The role of perceived gambling risk/benefits. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29813823. PubMed ID: 25730629 doi:10.1037/adb0000060

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CantinottiM.LadouceurR. & JacquesC. (2004). Sports betting: Can gamblers beat randomness? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 18143147. PubMed ID: 15238056 doi:10.1037/0893-164X.18.2.143

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CulhaneJ. (2015October 13). The DraftKings crash: Insider trading scandals could bring down daily fantasy sports. The Slate. Retrieved from https://slate.com/culture/2015/10/the-insider-trading-scandals-could-bring-down-draftkings-and-fanduel.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DavisN.W. & DuncanM.C. (2006). Sports knowledge is power: Reinforcing masculine privilege through fantasy sport league participation. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 30244264. doi:10.1177/0193723506290324

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DFS Partnership/Sponsorship Tracker. (2017). Legal sports report. Retrieved from https://www.legalsportsreport.com/dfs-sponsorship-tracker/

    • Export Citation
  • DrayerJ.DwyerB. & ShapiroS.L. (2013). Examining the impact of league entry fees on online fantasy sport participation and league consumption. European Sport Management Quarterly 13339357. doi:10.1080/16184742.2013.783605

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrayerJ.DwyerB. & ShapiroS.L. (2016). Irrational and delusional? Studying traits of daily fantasy players. Street & Smith’s SportsBusiness Journal 192021. PubMed ID: 30413821

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrayerJ.ShapiroS.L.DwyerB.MorseA.L. & WhiteJ. (2010). The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL consumption: A qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review 13129141. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2009.02.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB. (2011). Divided loyalty? An analysis of fantasy football involvement and fan loyalty to individual National Football League teams. Journal of Sport Management 25445457. doi:10.1123/jsm.25.5.445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB. (2013). The impact of game outcomes on fantasy football participation and National Football League media consumption. Sport Marketing Quarterly 223347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB.AchenR.M. & LupinekJ. (2016). Fantasy vs. reality: Exploring the BIRGing and CORFing behavior of fantasy football participants. Sport Marketing Quarterly 25186205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB. & KimY. (2011). For love or money: Developing and validating a motivational scale for fantasy football participation. Journal of Sport Management 257083. doi:10.1123/jsm.25.1.70

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB. & LeCromC.W. (2013). Is fantasy trumping reality? The redefined National Football League experience of novice fantasy football participants. Journal of Contemporary Athletics 7(3) 119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB.ShapiroS.L. & DrayerJ. (2018). Daily fantasy football and self-reported problem behavior in the United States. Journal of Gambling Studies 34689707. PubMed ID: 28951978 doi:10.1007/s10899-017-9720-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DwyerB. & WeinerJ.F. (2018). Daily grind: A comparison of causality orientations, emotions, and fantasy sport participation. Journal of Gambling Studies 34120. PubMed ID: 28293766 doi:10.1007/s10899-017-9684-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EnglerB. (2008). Personality theories. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2016a). Fantasy sports participation in North America rises to 57.4 million players. Retrieved from https://fsta.org/fantasy-sports-participation-in-north-america-rises-to-57-4-million-players/

    • Export Citation
  • Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2016b). Industry demographics: Actionable insights and insightful data. Retrieved from http://fsta.org/research/industry-demographics/

    • Export Citation
  • FisherE. (2008November 17). Study: Fantasy players spend big. Street & Smith’s SportsBusiness Journal 1112. Retrieved from http://www.sportsbusinessjournal.com/article/60598

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FornellC. & LarckerD. (1981). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Journal of Marketing Research 183950. doi:10.2307/3151312

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoukerD. (2015aJanuary 20). FanDuel studies: Seasonlong and daily fantasy sports players exhibit key differences. Legal Sports Report. Retrieved from http://www.legalsportsreport.com/370/fanduel-seasonlong-and-daily-fantasy-sports-players-differences/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoukerD. (2015bSeptember 2). DraftKings’ TV blitz: One commercial every 1.5 minutes; $82 million spent in ’15. Legal Sports Report. Retrieved from http://www.legalsportsreport.com/3483/draftkings-tv-commercial-blitz/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HagtvedtH. (2011). The impact of incomplete typeface logos on perceptions of the firm. Journal of Marketing 758693. doi:10.1509/jmkg.75.4.86

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarrisN.NewbyJ. & KleinR. (2015). Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies 31385396. PubMed ID: 24337941 doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9431-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeitnerD. (2015September 16). The hyper growth of daily fantasy sports is going to change our culture and our laws. Forbes: SportsMoney. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/darrenheitner/2015/09/16/the-hyper-growth-of-daily-fantasy-sports-is-going-to-change-our-culture-and-our-laws/#6cf673185f25

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HenselerJ.RingleC.M. & SarstedtM. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 43115135. doi:10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoldenJ.T. (2018). The Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act and the exemption for fantasy sports. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport 2897117. doi:10.18060/22335

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HollemanM.C. (2006). Fantasy football: Illegal gambling or legal game of skill? North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology 85980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IacobucciD. (2010). Structural equations modeling: Fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. Journal of Consumer Psychology 209098. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2009.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshiA.W. & SharmaS. (2004). Customer knowledge development: Antecedents and impact on new product performance. Journal of marketing 68(4) 4759. doi:10.1509/jmkg.68.4.47.42722

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KahnemanD. & TverskyA. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(3) 263291. doi:10.2307/1914185

  • KargA.J. & McDonaldH. (2011). Fantasy sport participation as a complement to traditional sport consumption. Sport Management Review 14327346. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.11.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlinskiC. (2017January 13). DFS demographics largely unchanged according to Eilers & Krejcik report. Daily Fantasy Sports Codes. Retrieved from http://dailyfantasysports.codes/wire/dfs-demographics-largely-unchanged-according-to-eilers-krejcik-report/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrejcikA. (2014). Daily fantasy sports: The future of US sports wagering? Eilers & Krejcik Gaming. Retrieved from https://ekgamingllc.com/shop-full-width/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KwakD.H.LeeJ.S. & MahanJ.E.III. (2013). Ad-evoked illusory judgments in fantasy sports participation: Effects of customization level and expert information. Journal of Sport Management 27393406. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.5.393

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KwakD.H.LimC.H.LeeW.Y. & MahanJ.III. (2010). How confident are you to win your fantasy league: Exploring the antecedents and consequences of winning expectancy. Journal of Sport Management 24416433. doi:10.1123/jsm.24.4.416

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LamontM.HingN. & GainsburyS. (2011). Gambling on sport sponsorship: A conceptual framework for research and regulatory review. Sport Management Review 14246257. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.04.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LangerE.J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32311328. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.32.2.311

  • Legal Sports Report. (2018). Legislative tracker: Daily fantasy sports. Retrieved from https://www.legalsportsreport.com/dfs-bill-tracker

    • Export Citation
  • MahanJ.E.DrayerJ. & SparveroE. (2012). Gambling and fantasy: An examination of the influence of money on fan attitudes and behaviors. Sport Marketing Quarterly 21159169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarmurekH.SwitzerJ. & D’AlviseJ. (2015). Impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and the gambler’s fallacy in university students. Journal of Gambling Studies 31197210. PubMed ID: 24293013 doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9421-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MeloneM. (2016). Fantasy sports contests: Does the fun justify the fantasy that these contests are not gambling? Virginia Sports and Entertainment Law Journal 15201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MichalczukR.Bowden-JonesH.Verdejo-GarciaA. & ClarkL. (2011). Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: A preliminary report. Psychological Medicine 4126252635. PubMed ID: 21733207 doi:10.1017/S003329171100095X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MillerE. & SingerD. (2015). For daily fantasy-sports operators, the curse of too much skill. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/media-and-entertainment/our-insights/for-daily-fantasy-sports-operators-the-curse-of-too-much-skill

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MillsB.M.KwakD.H.LeeJ.S. & LeeW.Y. (2014). Competitive environments in fantasy sports gaming: Effects of entry fees and rewards on opposition quality and league sorting. International Gambling Studies 14(1) 161180. doi:10.1080/14459795.2014.881904

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MishcelW. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • MischelW. & ShodaY. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review 102246268. PubMed ID: 7740090 doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.2.246

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MitrovicD.V. & BrownJ. (2009). Poker mania and problem gambling: A study of distorted cognitions, motivation and alexithymia. Journal of Gambling Studies 25(4) 489502. PubMed ID: 19649568 doi:10.1007/s10899-009-9140-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurrayJ.B. (1993). Review of research on pathological gambling. Psychological Reports 72791810. PubMed ID: 8332685 doi:10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3.791

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MyrsethH.PallesenS.MoldeH.JohnsenB.H. & LorvikI.M. (2009). Personality factors as predictors of pathological gambling. Personality and Individual Differences 47933937. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NesbitT.M. & KingK.A. (2010). The impact of fantasy football participation on NFL attendance. Atlantic Economic Journal 3895108. doi:10.1007/s11293-009-9202-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PietrzakR.H. & PetryN.M. (2005). Antisocial personality disorder is associated with increased severity of gambling, medical, drug and psychiatric problems among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Addiction 10011831193. PubMed ID: 16042649 doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01151.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PurdumD. (2018May 15). Supreme Court strikes down federal law prohibiting sports gambling. ESPN.com. Retrieved from http://www.espn.com/chalk/story/_/id/23501236/supreme-court-strikes-federal-law-prohibiting-sports-gambling

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RayluN. & OeiT.P. (2004). The Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Addiction 99(6) 757769. PubMed ID: 15139874 doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00753.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ReithG. (2005). The age of chance: Gambling in Western culture. London, UK: Routledge.

  • RobinsonM.J. & TrailG.T. (2005). Relationships among spectator gender, motives, points of attachment, and sport preference. Journal of Sport Management 195880. doi:10.1123/jsm.19.1.58

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RodenbergR. (2017June 9). Daily fantasy sports state-by-state tracker. ESPN. Retrieved from http://www.espn.com/chalk/story/_/id/14799449/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpurrierM. & BlaszczynskiA. (2014). Risk perception in gambling: A systematic review. Journal of Gambling Studies 30253276. PubMed ID: 23508850 doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9371-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ToneattoT. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use & Misuse 3415931604. PubMed ID: 10468110 doi:10.3109/10826089909039417

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ToneattoT.Blitz-MillerT.CalderwoodK.DragonettiR. & TsanosA. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies 13253266. PubMed ID: 12913389 doi:10.1023/A:1024983300428

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TracyJ.L.RobinsR.W. & ShermanJ.W. (2009). The practice of psychological science: Searching for Cronbach’s two streams in social-personality psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9612061225. PubMed ID: 19469597 doi:10.1037/a0015173

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van NattaD. (2016). Welcome to the big time: The implosion of the daily fantasy industry is a bro-classic tale of hubris, recklessness, political naïveté and a kill-or-be-killed culture. Outside the Lines [ESPN]. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/Sports/big-time/story?id=43148797

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeinerJ.F. & DwyerB. (2017). A new player in the game: Examining differences in motives and consumption between traditional, hybrid, and daily fantasy sport users. Sport Marketing Quarterly 26140152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhitesideS.P. & LynamD.R. (2001). The five factor model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences 30669689. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00064-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 142 142 36
Full Text Views 17 17 7
PDF Downloads 13 13 6
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar