“Count the Ways That It Impacts Your Life”: New Parenthood and Sport Fandom

in Journal of Sport Management
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

Scholars have begun exploring how parenthood impacts individuals’ sport fandom. Limited work to date, however, has considered such a question in light of new parenthood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine how new parent sport fans negotiate their multiple identities. To this end, I completed semi-structured long interviews with 27 sport fans with young children (i.e., individuals presently raising children of age 0–6 years). Drawing on the social–psychological foundations of identity theory, I examined these new parents’ salience hierarchy negotiation. I identified and analyzed two consumer groups: Maintainers (who have sustained the centrality of their fan identity despite a change in life circumstances) and Modifiers (who have “de-escalated” their fandom). These new parents’ voices are used to guide the findings. This study advances the theoretical understanding of how parenthood impacts fandom and illuminates how the sport industry can optimally serve new parent sport fans.

The author is with the Mark H. McCormack Department of Sport Management at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Mansfield (amansfield@umass.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (2012). The epistemology of numbers. In S.E. Baker, R. Edwards, & M. Doidge (Eds.), How many qualitative interviews is enough? (pp. 811). Southampton, UK: National Centre for Research Methods.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M.J., & Higgins, E.T. (1993). Emotional trade-offs of becoming a parent: How social roles influence self-discrepancy effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 12591269. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.6.1259

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amis, J. (2005). Interviewing for case study research. In D.L. Andrews, D.S. Mason, & M.L. Silk (Eds.), Qualitative methods in sports studies (pp. 104138). New York, NY: Berg.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amis, J.M., & Silk, M.L. (2008). The philosophy and politics of quality in qualitative organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 456480. doi:10.1177/1094428107300341

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashforth, B.E., Harrison, S.H., & Corley, K.G. (2008). Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34, 325374. doi:10.1177/0149206308316059

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belk, R.W. (2013). Extended self in a digital world. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 477500. doi:10.1086/671052

  • Blanchflower, D.G., & Clark, A.E. (2019). Children, unhappiness and family finances: Evidence from one million Europeans (Report No. w25597). Retrieved from the National Bureau of Economic Research website: https://www.nber.org/papers/w25597

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, P.J., & Reitzes, D.C. (1981). The link between identity and role performance. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 8392. doi:10.2307/3033704

  • Callero, P.L. (1985). Role-identity salience. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 203214. doi:10.2307/3033681

  • Chalip, L. (2006). Toward a distinctive sport management discipline. Journal of Sport Management, 20, 121. doi:10.1123/jsm.20.1.1

  • Cooley, C.H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York, NY: Scribner’s.

  • Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Delia, E.B. (2015). The exclusiveness of group identity in celebrations of team success. Sport Management Review, 18, 396406. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delia, E.B. (2019). “You can’t just erase history”: Coping with team identity threat. Journal of Sport Management, 33, 203214. doi:10.1123/jsm.2018-0283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delia, E.B., & James, J.D. (2017). The meaning of team in team identification. Sport Management Review, 21, 416429. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2017.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denzin, N.K. (1989). Interpretive biography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

  • Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005). The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • DeSarbo, W.S., & Madrigal, R. (2011). Examining the behavioral manifestations of fan avidity in sports marketing. Journal of Modelling in Management, 6, 7999. doi:10.1108/17465661111112511

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doss, B.D., Rhoades, G.K., Stanley, S.M., & Markman, H.J. (2009). The effect of the transition to parenthood on relationship quality: An 8-year prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 601619. doi:10.1037/a0013969

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Facebook. (2018). Why new parents turn to a virtual village. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/business/news/insights/why-new-parents-turn-to-a-virtual-village

    • Export Citation
  • Fairley, S., & Tyler, B.D. (2012). Bringing baseball to the big screen: Building sense of community outside of the ballpark. Journal of Sport Management, 26, 258270. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.3.258

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2017). Number of children (in millions) ages 0–17 in the United States by age, 1950–2017 and projected 2018–2050. Retrieved from https://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/tables/pop1.asp

    • Export Citation
  • Frisby, W. (2005). The good, the bad, and the ugly: Critical sport management research. Journal of Sport Management, 19, 112. doi:10.1123/jsm.19.1.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funk, D., & James, J. (2001). The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual’s psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4, 119150. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(01)70072-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galinsky, E. (1981). Between generations: The six stages of parenthood. New York, NY: Berkeley.

  • Guba, E.G., & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105117). London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutmann, D. (1975). Parenthood: A key to the comparative study of the life cycle. In N. Datan & L.H. Ginsberg (Eds.), Life span development and psychology: Normative life crises (pp. 167184). New York: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogg, M.A., Terry, D.J., & White, K.M. (1995). A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58, 255269. doi:10.2307/2787127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyatt, C., & Foster, W.M. (2015). Using identity work theory to understand the de-escalation of fandom: A study of former fans of National Hockey League teams. Journal of Sport Management, 29, 443460. doi:10.1123/jsm.2013-0327

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyatt, C., Kerwin, S., Hoeber, L., & Sveinson, K. (2018). The reverse socialization of sport fans: How children impact their parents’ sport fandom. Journal of Sport Management, 32, 542554. doi:10.1123/jsm.2017-0263

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Funk, D.C., Wann, D.L., Yoshida, M., & Nakazawa, M. (2015). Team identification and postdisaster social well-being: The mediating role of social support. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19, 3144. doi:10.1037/gdn0000019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobson, B. (2003). The social psychology of the creation of a sports fan identity: A theoretical review of the literature. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sports Psychology, 5, 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, J.D. (2001). The role of cognitive development and socialization in the initial development of team loyalty. Leisure Sciences, 23, 233261. doi:10.1080/01490400152809106

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.

  • Katz, M., Ward, R.M., & Heere, B. (2017). Explaining attendance through the brand community triad: Integrating network theory and team identification. Sport Management Review, 21, 176188. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2017.06.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J., & James, J.D. (2019). Sport and happiness: Understanding the relations among sport consumption activities, long-and short-term subjective well-being, and psychological need fulfillment. Journal of Sport Management, 33, 115. doi:10.1123/jsm.2018-0356

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleiner, O. (2009, June 30). Sox in 2 Brings coverage to even the busiest Red Sox fan. Retrieved from https://nesn.com/2009/06/sox-in-2-brings-coverage-to-even-the-busiest-red-sox-fan/

    • Export Citation
  • Kolbe, R.H., & James, J.D. (2000). An identification and examination of influences that shape the creation of a professional team fan. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 2, 2337.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lincoln, Y.S., Lynham, S.A., & Guba, E.G. (2011). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. In In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, (4th ed., pp. 97128) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lock, D., & Heere, B. (2017). Identity crisis: A theoretical analysis of ‘team identification’ research. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17, 413435. doi:10.1080/16184742.2017.1306872

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCall, G.J., & Simmons, J.L. (1978). Identities and interactions: An examination of human associations in everyday life. New York, NY: Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, H., Karg, A.J., & Vocino, A. (2013). Measuring season ticket holder satisfaction: Rationale, scale development and longitudinal validation. Sport Management Review, 16, 4153. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2012.05.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPherson, B.D. (1976). Socialization into the role of sport consumer: A theory and causal model. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 13, 165177. doi:10.1111/j.1755-618X.1976.tb00796.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mead, G. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Melnick, M.J. (1993). Searching for sociability in the stands: A theory of sports spectating. Journal of Sport Management, 7, 4460. doi:10.1123/jsm.7.1.44

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, S.K., Kushlev, K., English, T., Dunn, E.W., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood: Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science, 24, 310. doi:10.1177/0956797612447798

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olafson, G.A. (1990). Research design in sport management: What’s missing, what’s needed? Journal of Sport Management, 4, 103120. doi:10.1123/jsm.4.2.103

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Punch, F.K. (2009). Introduction to research methods in education. London, UK: Sage.

  • Riley, M.W., & Waring, J. (1976). Age and aging. In R. K. Merton & R. Nisbet (Eds.), Contemporary social problems (4th ed.). New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, M.J., Trail, G.T., Dick, R.J., & Gillentine, A.J. (2005). Fans vs. spectators: An analysis of those who attend intercollegiate football games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 4353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossman, G.B., & Rallis, S.F. (2012). Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

  • Russell, C. (1974). Transition to parenthood: Problems and gratifications. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 294301. doi:10.2307/351155

  • Saldaña, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G., & Siegel, S.D. (2005). Stress and health: Psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 607628. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, H., & Jacobs, J. (1979). Qualitative sociology: A method to the madness. New York: Free Press.

  • Spaaij, R., & Anderson, A. (2010). Psychosocial influences on children’s identification with sports teams: A case study of Australian Rules football supporters. Journal of Sociology, 46, 299315. doi:10.1177/1440783310371403

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparkes, A.C. (1994). Research paradigms in physical education: Some brief comments on differences that make a difference. British Journal of Physical Education Research Supplement, 14, 1116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statista. (2018). Global sports market revenue 2005–2017. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/370560/worldwide-sports-market-revenue/

    • Export Citation
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. London, UK: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stryker, S. (1968). Identity salience and role performance: The relevance of symbolic interaction theory for family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 30, 558564. doi:10.2307/349494

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stryker, S., & Serpe, R.T. (1982). Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior: Theory and research example. In W. Ickes & E. S. Knowles (Eds.), Personality, roles, and social behavior (pp. 199218). New York, NY: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stryker, S., & Serpe, R.T. (1994). Identity salience and psychological centrality: Equivalent, overlapping, or complementary concepts? Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 1635. doi:10.2307/2786972

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutton, W.A., McDonald, M.A., Milne, G.R., & Cimperman, J. (1997). Creating and fostering fan identification in professional sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6, 1522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sveningsson, S., & Alvesson, M. (2003). Managing managerial identities: Organizational fragmentation, discourse, and identity struggle. Human Relations, 56, 11631193. doi:10.1177/00187267035610001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swann, W.B. (1987). Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 10381051. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 3347). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J. (2011). The intimate insider: Negotiating the ethics of friendship when doing insider research. Qualitative Research, 11, 322. doi:10.1177/1468794110384447

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, C.J., Locander, W.B., & Pollio, H.R. (1989). Putting consumer experience back into consumer research: The philosophy and method of existential-phenomenology. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 133146. doi:10.1086/209203

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinson, J., Sinclair, G., & Kolyperas, D. (2017). Sport fandom and parenthood. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17, 370391. doi:10.1080/16184742.2017.1280068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trail, G.T., Robinson, M.J., Dick, R.J., & Gillentine, A.J. (2003). Motives and points of attachment: Fans versus spectators in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12, 217227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). America’s families and living arrangements: 2018. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2018/demo/families/cps-2018.html

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Vallerand, R.J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G.A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C.F., Leonard, M., & Gagne, M. (2003). Les passions de l’âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756767. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ventura, J.N. (1987). The stresses of parenthood re-examined. Family Relations, 36, 2629. doi:10.2307/584642

  • Wakefield, K. (2016). Using fan passion to predict attendance, media consumption, and social media behaviors. Journal of Sport Management, 30, 229247. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0039

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallendorf, M., & Belk, R.W. (1989). Assessing trustworthiness in naturalistic consumer research. In E.C. Hirschman (Ed.), Interpretive consumer research (pp. 6984). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L. (2006). Understanding the positive social psychological benefits of sport team identification: The team identification-social psychological health model. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10, 272296. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.10.4.272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Allen, B., & Rochelle, A.R. (2004). Using sport fandom as an escape: Searching for relief from under-stimulation and over-stimulation. International Sports Journal, 8, 104113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., & Branscombe, N.R. (1993). Sports fans: Measuring degree of identification with their team. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Tucker, K.B., & Schrader, M.P. (1996). An exploratory examination of the factors influencing the origination, continuation, and cessation of identification with sports teams. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 9951001. doi:10.2466/pms.1996.82.3.995

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegner, C.E., Delia, E.B., & Baker, B.J. (2019). Fan response to the identity threat of potential team relocation. Sport Management Review.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolcott, H.F. (1994). Transforming qualitative data: Description, analysis and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Yuksel, M., Milne, G.R., & Miller, E.G. (2016). Social media as complementary consumption: The relationship between consumer empowerment and social interactions in experiential and informative contexts. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33, 111123. doi:10.1108/JCM-04-2015-1396

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeigler, E.F. (2007). Sport management must show social concern as it develops tenable theory. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 297318. doi:10.1123/jsm.21.3.297

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 176 176 52
Full Text Views 21 21 4
PDF Downloads 15 15 0