Running Through Travel Career Progression: Social Worlds and Active Sport Tourism

in Journal of Sport Management
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Colorado—Colorado Springs
  • 2 The University of Queensland
  • 3 New York University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

Using social worlds as a framework, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between event travel career progression with travel behavior and related intentions. As such, this study has depicted the evolving behaviors and preferences of active sport tourists in an effort to improve the localized impact of events. Using previous research on social worlds and active sport event travel careers, the authors have hypothesized that differences in social worlds immersion would be present based on event participation, travel party conditions, flow-on tourism activities, and repeat/revisit intentions, as well as differences in flow-on tourism activities based on travel conditions. In partnership with a large running festival in the Midwest United States, data were collected and analyzed to test these hypotheses (N = 2,219). The results indicated support for the hypotheses previously outlined. Theoretical contributions to the study of active sport tourism and practical implications for the management of events and destinations are discussed.

Aicher is with the Sport Management, Dept. of Marketing, College of Business, University of Colorado—Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, USA. Buning is with The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia. Newland is with the New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Aicher (taicher@uccs.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Aicher, T.J., & Brenner, J. (2015). A conceptual framework to determine an individual’s motivation to participate in an event. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism, 18, 5681. doi:10.5199/ijsmart-1791-874X-18d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aicher, T.J., Karadakis, K., & Eddosary, M. (2015). Comparison of sport tourists’ and locals’ motivation to participate in a running event. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 6(3), 122. doi:10.1108/IJEFM-03-2015-0011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aicher, T.J., & Newland, B.L. (2018). To explore or race? Examining endurance athletes’ destination event choices. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 24(4), 340354. doi:10.1177/1356766717736364

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aicher, T.J., Rice, J.A., & Hambrick, M.E. (2017). Understanding the relationship between motivation, sport involvement, and sport event evaluation meanings as factors influencing marathon participation. Journal of Global Sport Management, 2(4), 217233. doi:10.1080/24704067.2017.1375384

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersson, M., & Elkman, P. (2009). Ambassador networks and place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2(1), 4151. doi:10.1108/17538330910942799

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Axelsen, M., & Robinson, R.N. (2009). Race around the world: Identifying a research agenda for the distance runner. Annals of Leisure Research, 12(2), 236257. doi:10.1080/11745398.2009.9686820

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, B.J., Jordan, J.S., & Funk, D.C. (2018). Run again another day: The role of consumer characteristics and satisfaction in repeat consumption of a sport-related experience product. Journal of Sport Management, 32(1), 3852. doi:10.1123/jsm.2017-0042

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beaton, A.A., Funk, D.C., Ridinger, L., & Jordan, J. (2011). Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Sport Management Review, 14(2), 126140. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2010.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bull, C.J. (2006). Racing cyclists as sports tourists: The experiences and behaviours of a case study group of cyclists in East Kent, England. Journal of Sport Tourism, 11(3/4), 259274. doi:10.1080/14775080701400927

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buning, R.J., & Gibson, H.J. (2015). The evolution of active sport event travel careers. Journal of Sport Management, 29(5), 555569. doi:10.1123/jsm.2014-0215

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buning, R.J., & Gibson, H.J. (2016a). Exploring the trajectory of active-sport-event travel careers: A social worlds perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 30(3), 265281. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0213

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buning, R.J., & Gibson, H.J. (2016b). The role of travel conditions in cycling tourism: Implications for destination and event management. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 20(3/4), 119.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalip, L. (2018). Trading legacy for leverage. In I. Brittain, J. Bocarro, T. Byers, & K. Swart (Eds.), Legacies and mega events: Fact or fairy tales? (pp. 2542). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalip, L., & McGuirty, J. (2004). Building sport events with the host destination. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 9(3), 267282. doi:10.1080/1477508042000320241

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Downward, P., Lumsdon, L., & Weston, R. (2009). Visitor expenditure: The case of cycle recreation and tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(1), 2542. doi:10.1080/14775080902847397

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, J., Jordan, S.J., & Funk, D.C. (2015). Managing mass sport participation: Adding a personal performance perspective to remodel antecedents and consequences of participant sport event satisfaction. Journal of Sport Management, 29(6), 688704. doi:10.1123/JSM.2014-0225

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filo, K., Chen, N., King, C., & Funk, D.C. (2013). Sport tourists’ involvement with a destination: A stage-based examination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37(1), 100124. doi:10.1177/1096348011425496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funk, D.C., Toohey, K., & Bruun, T. (2007). International sport event participation: Prior sport involvement, destination image, and travel motives. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 227248. doi:10.1080/16184740701511011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gahwiler, P., & Havitz, M.E. (1998). Toward a relational understanding of leisure social worlds, involvement, psychological commitment, and behavioral loyalty. Leisure Sciences, 20(1), 123. doi:10.1080/01490409809512262

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gandhi-Arora, R., & Shaw, R.N. (2002). Visitor loyalty in sport tourism: An empirical investigation. Current Issues in Tourism, 5(1), 4553. doi:10.1080/13683500208667907

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29(3), 403428. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2007.07.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getz, D., & Andersson, T.D. (2010). The event-tourist career trajectory: A study of high-involvement amateur distance runners. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(4), 468491. doi:10.1080/15022250.2010.524981

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getz, D., & McConnell, A. (2011). Serious sport tourism and event travel careers. Journal of Sport Management, 25(4), 326338. doi:10.1123/jsm.25.4.326

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getz, D., & McConnell, A. (2014). Comparing trail runners and mountain bikers: Motivation, involvement, portfolios, and event-tourist careers. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 15(1), 69100. doi:10.1080/15470148.2013.834807

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Getz, D., & Patterson, I. (2013). Social worlds as a framework for event and travel careers. Tourism Analysis, 18(5), 485501. doi:10.3727/108354213X13782245307632

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, H.J., Kaplanidou, K., & Kang, S.J. (2012). Small-scale event sport tourism: A case study in sustainable tourism. Sport Management Review, 15(2), 160170. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.08.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, H.J., Lamont, M., Kennelly, M., & Buning, R.J. (2018). Introduction to the special issue active sport tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 22(2), 8389. doi:10.1080/14775085.2018.1466350

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, H.J., Willming, C., & Holdnak, A. (2003). Small-scale event sport tourism: Fans as tourists. Tourism Management, 24(2), 181190. doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00058-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, B.C. (2001). Leveraging subculture and identity to promote sport events. Sport Management Review, 4(1), 119. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(01)70067-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, B.C., & Chalip, L. (1998). Sport tourism as the celebration of subculture. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 275291. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00073-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunn, C. (1972). Vacationscape: Designing tourist regions. Austin, TX: Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas.

  • Kaplanidou, K., & Gibson, H.J. (2010). Predicting behavioral intentions of active event sport tourists: The case of a small-scale recurring sports event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(2), 163179. doi:10.1080/14775085.2010.498261

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplanidou, K., Jordan, J.S., Funk, D., & Ridinger, L.L. (2012). Recurring sport events and destination image perceptions: Impact on active sport tourist behavioral intentions and place attachment. Journal of Sport Management, 26(3), 237248. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.3.237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, C. (2007). The interrelationship between sport event and destination image and sport tourists’ behaviors. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3/4), 183206. doi:10.1080/14775080701736932

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, D.M., & Fairley, S. (2018). What about the event? How do tourism leveraging strategies affect small-scale events? Tourism Management, 64, 335345. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.09.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kennedy, H., Baker, B.J., Jordan, J.S., & Funk, D.C. (2019). Running recession: A trend analysis of running involvement and runner characteristics to understand declining participation. Journal of Sport Management, 33(3), 215228. doi:10.1123/jsm.2018-0261

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulczycki, C., & Halpenny, E.A. (2014). Sport cycling tourists’ setting preferences, appraisals and attachments. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(2), 169197. doi:10.1080/14775085.2015.1070741

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamont, M., & Kennelly, M. (2012). A qualitative exploration of participant motives among committed amateur triathletes. Leisure Sciences, 34(3), 236255. doi:10.1080/01490400.2012.669685

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamont, M., Kennelly, M., & Moyle, B. (2017). Perspectives of endurance athletes’ spouses: A paradox of serious leisure. Leisure Sciences, 41(6), 477498. doi:10.1080/01490400.2017.1384943

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamont, M., Kennelly, M., & Wilson, E. (2012). Competing priorities as constraints in event travel careers. Tourism Management, 33(5), 10681079. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.12.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lough, N.L., Pharr, J.R., & Owen, J.O. (2014). Runner identity and sponsorship: Evaluating the Rock ‘n’ Roll Marathon. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 23(4), 198211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGehee, N.G., Yoon, Y., & Cardenas, D. (2003). Involvement and travel for recreational runners in North Carolina. Journal of Sport Management, 17(3), 305324. doi:10.1123/jsm.17.3.305

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, L., Mascardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Exploring word-of-mouth influences on travel decisions: Friends and relatives vs. other travelers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5), 517527. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00608.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myburgh, E., Kruger, M., & Saayman, M. (2018). Aspects influencing the commitment of endurance athletes: A tourism perspective. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 22(4), 275301. doi:10.1080/14775085.2018.1472032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newland, B.L., & Aicher, T.J. (2018). Exploring sport participants’ event and destination choices. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 22(2), 131149. doi:10.1080/14775085.2018.1436464

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Brien, D. (2007). Points of leverage: Maximizing host community benefits from a regional surfing festival. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(2), 141165. doi:10.1080/16184740701353315

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patterson, I., Getz, D., & Gubb, K. (2016). The social world and event travel career of the serious yoga devotee. Leisure Studies, 23(3), 118. doi:10.1080/02614367.2014.962583

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pearce, P.L. (2005). Tourist behaviour: Themes and conceptual schemes. Buffalo, NY: Channel View.

  • Pearce, P.L., & Lee, U.I. (2005). Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 226237. doi:10.1177/0047287504272020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reitsamer, B.F., Brunner-Sperdin, A., & Stokburger-Sauer, N.E. (2016). Destination attractiveness and destination attachment: The mediating role of tourists’ attitude. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19(Pt. A), 93101. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, B., Mosedale, L., & King, J. (2002). Profiling sport tourists: The case of super 12 rugby union in the Australian capital territory, Australia. Current Issues in Tourism, 5(1), 3344. doi:10.1080/13683500208667906

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, T., & Gammon, S. (2004). A question of primary and secondary motives: Revisiting and applying the sport tourism framework. Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(3), 221233. doi:10.1080/1477508042000320223

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, R., Patterson, I., & Axelsen, M. (2014). The “Loneliness of the long-distance runner” no more. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(4), 375394. doi:10.1080/00222216.2014.11950333

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Running USA. (2017). 2017 U.S. road r ace trends. Los Angeles: Author.

  • Running USA. (2018). Runner retention survey. Los Angeles: Author.

  • Sato, M., Jordan, J.S., Kaplanidou, K., & Funk, D.C. (2014). Determinants of tourists’ expenditure at mass participant sport events: A five-year analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(9), 763771. doi:10.1080/13683500.2014.892918

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sato, S., Kim, H., Buning, R.J., & Harada, M. (2018). Adventure tourism motivation and destination loyalty: A comparison of decision and non-decision makers. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 7481. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.12.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schanzel, H.A., & Yeoman, I. (2014). The future of family tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 39(3), 343360. doi:10.1080/02508281.2014.11087005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shipway, R. (2008, February 11–14). Road trip: Understanding the social world of the distance runner as sport tourist. Paper presented at the CAUTHE 2008 Annual Conference: Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice; “Where the ‘bloody hell’ are we?”, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shipway, R., Holloway, I., & Jones, I. (2012). Organisations, practices, actors, and events: Exploring inside the distance running social world. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(3), 259276. doi:10.1177/1012690212442135

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shipway, R., & Jones, I. (2007). Running away from home: Understanding visitor experiences and behaviour at sport tourism events. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(5), 373383. doi:10.1002/jtr.641

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shipway, R., & Jones, I. (2008). The great suburban Everest: An ‘insiders’ perspective on experiences at the 2007 Flora London Marathon. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13(1), 6177. doi:10.1080/14775080801972213

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2010). Attracting and leveraging visitors at a charity cycling event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(4), 269285. doi:10.1080/14775085.2010.533918

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stebbins, R. (1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25(2), 251272. doi:10.2307/1388726

  • Stevens, J.P. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Strauss, A. (1978). A social world perspective. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 1, 119128.

  • Strauss, A. (1982). Social worlds and legitimation processes. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 4, 171190.

  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

  • Taks, M., Chalip, L., Green, B.C., Kesenne, S., & Martyn, S. (2009). Factors affecting repeat visitation and flow-on tourism as sources of event strategy sustainability. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(2/3), 121142. doi:10.1080/14775080902965066

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unruh, D.R. (1979). Characteristics and types of participation in social worlds. Symbolic Interaction, 2(2), 115130. doi:10.1525/si.1979.2.2.115

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unruh, D.R. (1980). The nature of social worlds. Pacific Sociological Review, 23(3), 271296. doi:10.2307/1388823

  • Weed, M., & Bull, C. (2004). Sport tourism: Participants, policy, and providers. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Butterworth: Heinemann.

  • Wicker, P., & Hallman, K. (2013). Estimating consumer’s willingness-to-pay for participation in and traveling to marathon events. Event Management, 17(3), 271282. doi:10.3727/152599513X13708863377953

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willis, G.B. (2005). Cognitive interviewing: A tool for improving questionnaire design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Xu, R., & Pegg, S. (2007). Exploring the motivations for participant engagement in the Australian University Games. International Journal of Event Management Research, 3(2), 3946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoo, J.J.-E., Newland, B.L., & Woojin, L. (2020). Influencing active sport tourists’ loyalty to event and destination. Event Management. doi:10.3727/152599519X15506259856336

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshida, M., Heere, B., & Gordon, B. (2015). Predicting behavioral loyalty through community: Why other fans are more important than our own intentions, our satisfaction, and the team itself. Journal of Sport Management, 29(3), 318333. doi:10.1123/jsm.2013-0306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziakas, V. (2014). Planning and leveraging event portfolios: Towards a holistic theory. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 23(3), 327356. doi:10.1080/19368623.2013.796868

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziakas, V. (2019). Issues, patterns and strategies in the development of event portfolios: Configuring models, design and policy. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 11(1), 121158. doi:10.1080/19407963.2018.1471481

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 209 209 124
Full Text Views 17 17 3
PDF Downloads 10 10 3