This paper addresses the degree of influence exerted on athletic programs from internal and external sources. Using survey data, internal influence was assessed by the athletic administrators indicating their perceptions of their influence in decision-making activities. Factor analysis yielded three factors (administrative, strategic, and marketing decision types) that were used in repeated-measures ANOVA procedures with administrative level as the independent measure and decision types as the dependent measures. Significant results are discussed in relation to the theoretical concepts of decision types, gender, and hierarchical position. External influence was assessed by the athletic administrators and university presidents indicating their perceptions of the degree of influence exerted by external groups on the athletic program. Repeated-measures ANOVA procedures with subsequent Scheffé post hoc analyses where appropriate were used. The results are discussed in relation to the hierarchical position of the respondents and levels of influence exerted by the external groups.
Sue Inglis is with the Department of Physical Education, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street, West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1.