Temporal Variations in the Relationship Between Legacies and Support: A Longitudinal Case Study in Rio 2016 Olympic Games

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

The purpose of this research was to describe temporal variations in Rio residents’ support for the 2016 Olympic Games and in the relationship between perceptions of legacies and support for the event. Drawing on social exchange theory, perceptions (expectations and evaluations) of tangible, intangible, and environmental legacies should affect support intentions. A longitudinal trend study was designed. Four multistage stratified random samples of Rio residents were surveyed in 2012 (n = 900), 2014 (n = 900), 2016 (n = 723), and 2018 (n = 550). Results showed that perceptions of legacies and support for Rio 2016 Olympic Games decreased progressively from 2012 to 2018. In the early stages of preparation (2012 and 2014), expectations of intangible and environmental legacies were predictors of support. In the year of the event and 2 years after the event, perceptions of tangible legacies were predictors of support. Longitudinal findings show that, to gain support, organizers promise unattainable legacies, which then lead to dwindling support, as they fail to deliver them. Findings suggest that organizers’ plans and actions of sport mega-events must change.

The author is with the Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

Rocha (claudio.rocha@stir.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Anderson, J.C., & Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ap, J. (1992). Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665–690. doi:

  • Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., Irvine, C.K.S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in education. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • Baade, R.A., & Matheson, V.A. (2004). The quest for the cup: Assessing the economic impact of the World Cup. Regional Studies, 38, 343–354. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baade, R.A., & Matheson, V.A. (2016). Going for the gold: The economics of the Olympics. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 201–218. doi:

  • Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. doi:

  • Bagozzi, R.P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L.W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beard, M. (2008). The London Olympics may fail to deliver its key pledge to boost nationwide popularity of sport. London Evening Standard, pp. 1–2. Retrieved from http://www.standard.co.uk/olympics/2012-games-will-fail-to-boost-grassroots-sport-6923043.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blau, P., & Scott, W.R. (1962). Formal organizations: A comparative approach. San Francisco, CA: Chandler.

  • Brannagan, P.M., & Rookwood, J. (2016). Sports mega-events, soft power and soft disempowerment: International supporters’ perspectives on Qatar’s acquisition of the 2022 FIFA World Cup finals. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 8, 173–188. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broudehoux, A. (2007). Spectacular Beijing: The conspicuous construction of an Olympic metropolis. Journal of Urban Affairs, 29(4), 383–399. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulman, E. (2007). Rights group: 1.5 million people displaced by the preparations for 2008 Beijing Olympics. USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2007-06-05-3431055449_x.htm%25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cashman, R. (2006). The bitter–sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Sydney, Australia: Walla Walla Press.

  • Chalip, L. (2002). Using the Olympics to optimise tourism benefits: University lecture on the Olympics, (pp. 1–18). Retrieved from http://olympicstudies.uab.es/lectures/web/pdf/chalip.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalip, L., Green, B.C., Taks, M., & Misener, L. (2017). Creating sport participation from sport events: Making it happen. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 9(Special), 61–80.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chappelet, J.-L. (2012). Mega sporting event legacies: A multifaceted concept. Papeles de Europa, 25, 76–86.

  • Collins, A., Jones, C., & Munday, M. (2009). Assessing the environmental impacts of mega sporting events: Two options? Tourism Management, 30(6), 828–837. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cropanzano, R.S., & Mitchell, L. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900. doi:

  • Darnell, S.C. (2012). Olympism in action, Olympic hosting and the politics of ‘Sport for Development and Peace’: Investigating the development discourses of Rio 2016. Sport in Society, 15(6), 869–887. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deccio, C., & Baloglu, S. (2002). Nonhost community resident reactions to the 2002 Winter Olympics: The spillover impacts. Journal of Travel Research, 41, 46–56. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, T.J., Benson, A.M., & Blackman, D.A. (2011). Developing a framework for evaluating Olympic and Paralympic legacies. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 16(4), 285–302. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Essex, S., & Chalkley, B. (2004). Mega-sporting events in urban and regional policy: A history of the Winter Olympics. Planning Perspectives, 19(2), 201–204. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flanders, S. (2011). The global financial crisis and the BRICs. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15817660

  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fourie, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2011). The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals. Tourism Management, 32, 1364–1370. doi:

  • Gaffney, C. (2013). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning. Sustainability, 5(9), 3926–3940. doi:

  • Getz, D. (1998). Trends, strategies, and issues in sport-event tourism. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 7(2), 8–13.

  • Giulianotti, R., Armstrong, G., Hales, G., & Hobbs, D. (2015). Sport mega-events and public opposition: A sociological study of the London 2012 Olympics. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 39(2), 99–119. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo, B., Aveyard, P., Fielding, A., & Sutton, S. (2008). Testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the decisional balance scale of the transtheoretical model using the multi-trait multi-method approach. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(2), 288–294. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K.W. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modeling locals’ support. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(3), 603–623. doi:

  • Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, C.M. (1994). Hallmark tourist events: Impacts, management and planning. London, UK: Bellhaven Press.

  • Heslop, L.A., Nadeau, J., & O’Reilly, N. (2010). China and the Olympics: Views of insiders and outsiders. International Marketing Review, 27, 404–433. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hiller, H.H., & Wanner, R.A. (2011). Public opinion in host Olympic cities: The case of the 2010 Vancouver Winter Games. Sociology, 45, 883–899. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horne, J. (2007). The four ‘knowns’ of sports mega-events. Leisure Studies, 26(1), 81–96. doi:

  • Hritz, N., & Ross, C. (2010). The perceived impacts of sport tourism: An urban host community perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 24, 119–138. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model specification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424–453. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. (2018). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. Retrieved from https://www.ibge.gov.br/

    • Export Citation
  • Jin, L., Zhang, J.J., Ma, X., & Connaughton, D.P. (2011). Residents’ perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2008 Beijing Green Olympic Games. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11, 275–300. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, C. (2001). Mega-events and host-region impacts: Determining the true worth of the 1999 Rugby World Cup. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3, 241–251. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., & Williams, R.D. (1997). A theoretical analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 36(2), 3–11. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplanidou, K. (2012). The importance of legacy outcomes for Olympic Games four summer host cities residents’ quality of life: 1996–2008. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(4), 397–433. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karadakis, K., & Kaplanidou, K. (2012). Legacy perceptions among host and non-host Olympic Games residents: A longitudinal study of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(3), 243–264. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kesenne, S. (2012). The economic impact, costs and benefits of the FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games: Who wins, who loses? In W. Maennig & A. Zimbalist (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of mega sporting events (pp. 270–278). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H.J., Gursoy, D., & Lee, S.B. (2006). The impact of the 2002 World Cup on South Korea: Comparisons of pre- and post-games. Tourism Management, 27, 86–96. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenskyj, H.J. (2016). Sochi 2014 Olympics: Accommodation and resistance. In J. Dart & S. Wagg (Eds.), Sport, protest and globalisation (pp. 311–334). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, S.-C., & Kaplanidou, K. (2017). Examining the importance of legacy outcomes of major sport events for host city residents’ quality of life. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 12(4), 903–923. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macrae, E.H.R. (2017). Delivering sports participation legacies at the grassroots level: The voluntary sports clubs of Glasgow 2014. Journal of Sport Management, 31(1), 15–26. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magalhaes, L.E. (2012). Consórcio liderado pela Odebrecht vence licitação para o Parque Olímpico. O Globo. Retrieved from https://oglobo.globo.com/rio/consorcio-liderado-pela-odebrecht-vence-licitacao-para-parque-olimpico-4220966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matheson, C.M., & Finkel, R. (2012). Sex trafficking and the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games: Perceptions and preventative measures. Tourism Management, 36, 613–628. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mead, R.W., & Brajer, V. (2008). Environmental cleanup and health gains from Beijing’s Green Olympics. The China Quarterly, 194, 275–293. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mihalik, B.J., & Simonetta, L. (1999). Host perceptions of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games—Year II. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 5, 9–19. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Misener, L., & Schulenkorf, N. (2016). Rethinking the social value of sport events through an asset-based community development (ABCD) perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 30(3), 329–340. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neilson, B. (2002). Bodies of protest: Performing citizenship at the 2000 Olympic Games. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 16(1), 13–25. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nunnally, J.C., & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  • Oliver, B. (2014). British Olympic volunteers are ready to head to Rio for 2016 Games. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2014/aug/24/olympic-games-2016-volunteering

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ortiz, E. (2016). What is a Favela? Five things to know about Rio’s so-called Shantytowns. NBC News. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/2016-rio-summer-olympics/what-favela-five-things-know-about-rio-s-so-called-n622836

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perdue, R., Long, P.T., & Allen, L. (1990). Resident support for tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 586–599. doi:

  • Porter, P.K., & Fletcher, D. (2008). The economic impact of the Olympic Games: Ex ante predictions and ex poste reality. Journal of Sport Management, 22(4), 470–486. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Nunkoo, R., & Alders, T. (2013). London residents’ support for the 2012 Olympic Games: The mediating effect of overall attitude. Tourism Management, 36, 629–640. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preuss, H. (2007). The conceptualisation and measurement of mega sport event legacies. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3), 207–228. doi:

  • Preuss, H., & Solberg, H.A. (2006). Attracting major sporting events: The role of local residents. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6, 391–411. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reuters. (2016). Brazil’s jobless rate ends 2016 at 12 percent with 12.3 million unemployed. Reuters Press. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-economy-employment/brazils-jobless-rate-ends-2016-at-12-percent-with-12-3-million-unemployed-idUSKBN15F1LE

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rio2016. (2013). Sustainability management plan: Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Retrieved from http://www.rio2016.com/sites/default/files/parceiros/sustainability_management_plan_aug2013.pdf

    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, B.W., Shipway, R., & Chien, P.M. (2010). The role of the media in influencing residents’ support for the 2012 Olympic Games. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1(3), 202–219. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, B.W., Shipway, R., & Cleeve, B. (2009). Resident perceptions of mega-sporting events: A non-host city perspective of the 2012 London Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14, 143–167. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, J.R.B. (2000). Turning 16 days into 16 years through Olympic legacies. Event Management, 6, 155–165. doi:

  • Ritchie, J.R.B., Molinar, C.M.A., & Frechtling, D.C. (2010). Impacts of the world recession and economic crisis on tourism: North America. Journal of Travel Research, 49(1), 5–15. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, J.R.B., & Smith, B.H. (1991). The impact of a mega-event on host region awareness: A longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 30(1), 3–10. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rocha, C.M. (2017). Rio 2016 and diplomatic legacies. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 9(Special), 1–18. doi:

  • Rocha, C.M., Barbanti, V.J., & Chelladurai, P. (2017). Support of local residents for the 2016 Olympic Games. Event Management, 21(3), 251–268. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romero, S. (2012). Slum dwellers are defying Brazil’s grand design for Olympics. New York, NY: New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/05/world/americas/brazil-faces-obstacles-in-preparations-for-rio-olympics.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samuel, S., & Stubbs, W. (2012). Green Olympics, green legacies? An exploration of the environmental legacies of the Olympic Games. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(4), 485–504. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, A.L.P. (2018). The educational program of the Olympic Games—Rio 2016. International Journal of Sport and Society, 9(2), 19–35. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solberg, H.A., & Preuss, H. (2007). Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 213–234. doi:

  • Taks, M., Littlejohn, M., Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2016). Sport events and residential happiness: The case of two non-mega sport events. Journal of Global Sport Management, 1(3–4), 90–109. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toohey, K., & Veal, A.J. (2007). The Olympic games: A social science perspective (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: CABI Pub.

  • Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological Review, 110(3), 403–421. doi:

  • UNDP (2013). Human Development Report 2013–The rise of south (U. Nations, Ed.). New York, NY. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Rheenen, D. (2014). A skunk at the garden party: The Sochi Olympics, state-sponsored homophobia and prospects for human rights through mega sporting events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(2), 127–144. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waitt, G. (2003). Social impacts of the Sydney Olympics. Annals of Tourism Research30(1), 194–215. doi:

  • Watt, P. (2013). ‘It’s not for us.’ Regeneration, the 2012 Olympics and the gentrification of East London. City, 17(1), 99–118. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watts, J. (2014). Anti-World Cup protests across Brazil. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/16/anti-world-cup-protests-across-brazil

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watts, J. (2016). Rio de Janeiro governor declares state of financial emergency ahead of Olympics. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/17/rio-de-janeiro-financial-emergency-olympic-games-2016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weimar, D., & Rocha, C.M. (2019). Does distance matter? Geographical distance and domestic support for mega sports events. Journal of Sports Economics, 20(2), 286–313. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoon, Y., Gursoy, D., & Chen, J.S. (2001). Validating a tourism development theory with structural equation modeling. Tourism Management, 22, 363–372. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemel, M. (2011). How powerful is the IOC? Let’s talk about the environment. Journal of Environmental and Energy Law, 1, 173–220.

  • Zhou, Y., & Ap, J. (2009). Residents’ perceptions towards the impacts of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Journal of Travel Research, 48, 78–91. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 63 60 59
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 1 1 1