The Effect of Digital Integrated Marketing Communications on Not-for-Profit Sport Consumption Behaviors

in Journal of Sport Management
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

Relationship marketing through digital forms of integrated marketing communications can provide sport organizations with a range of positive outcomes. Given decreasing participation, membership and funding pressures, sport organizations need to engage with current and prospective consumers to alleviate these concerns. Drawing on existing research in the digital communications setting, a framework illustrating the end to end integrated marketing communications function as implemented by governing bodies as a form of not-for-profit sporting organizations is presented and tested. Satisfaction with integrated marketing communications was shown to have a direct effect on relationship quality and behavioral intentions, including revenue raising, increasing participation, raising awareness, and enhancing public perception providing practical and theoretical benefits.

Whitburn and Turner are with Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia. Karg is with Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Whitburn (Damien.whitburn@deakin.edu.au) is corresponding author.
  • Abeza, G., & O’Reilly, N. (2014). Social media platforms’ use in building stakeholder relationships. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 6(3), 103–126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Séguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2015). Social media scholarship in sport management research: A critical review. Journal of Sport Management, 29(6), 323, 338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., Seguin, B., & Nzindukiyimana, O. (2017). Social media as a relationship marketing tool in professional sport: A netnographical exploration. International Journal of Sport Communication, 10(3), 325–358. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Achen, R.M. (2016). Examining the influence of Facebook fans, content, and engagement on business outcomes in the National Basketball Association. Journal of Social Media for Organizations, 3(1), 1–15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amis, J. (2005). Interviewing for case study research. In D.L. Andrews, D.S. Mason, & M.L. Silk (Eds.), Qualitative methods in sports studies (pp. 104–138). Oxford, UK: Berg.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderl, E.M., Klapdor, S., von Wangenheim, F., & Schumann, J.H. (2014). Finding the right words: The influence of keyword characteristics on performance of paid search campaigns. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(4), 285–301. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, E.W., & Fornell, C. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53–66.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreasen, A.R., & Kotler, P. (2003). Strategic marketing for non-profit organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Assmus, G., Farley, J.U., & Lehmann, D.R. (1984). How advertising affects sales: Meta-analysis of econometric results. Journal of Marketing Research, 21(1), 65–74. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baird, C., & Parasnis, G. (2011). From social media to social customer relationship management. Strategy & Leadership, 39(5), 30–37. doi:

  • Bayle, E., & Madella, A. (2002). Development of a taxonomy of performance for national sport organizations. European Journal of Sport Science, 2(2), 1–21. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayle, E., & Robinson, L. (2007). A framework for understanding the performance of national governing bodies of sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 249–268. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bee, C.C., & Kahie, L.R. (2006). Relationship marketing in sports: A functional approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 15(2), 102–110.

  • Belch, G.E., & Belch, M.A. (2015). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berrett, T., & Slack, T. (2001). A framework for the analysis of strategic approaches employed by non-profit sport organisations in seeking corporate sponsorship. Sport Management Review, 4(1), 21–45. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, B.A., & Magnusson, P. (2007). Social identity and brand equity formation: A comparative study of collegiate sports fans. Journal of Sport Management, 21(4), 497–520. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, J., Broderick, A.J., & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 2–20. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulut, I., Radojicic, M., & Nesic, Z. (2012). Some considerations on modern aspects of marketing promotion. Technics Technologies Education Management, 7(4), 1741–1750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burton, R., & Howard, D. (1999). Professional sports leagues: Marketing mix mayhem. Marketing Management, 8(1), 36.

  • Carlson, J., & O’Cass, A. (2010). Exploring the relationships between e-service quality, satisfaction, attitudes and behaviours in content-driven e-service web sites. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 112–127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, K.W., & Li, S.Y. (2010). Understanding consumer-to-consumer interactions in virtual communities: The salience of reciprocity. Journal of Business Research, 63(9–10), 1033–1040. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, Y., & Thorson, E. (2004). Television and web advertising synergies. Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 75–84. doi:

  • Chelladurai, P. (1987). Multidimensionality and multiple perspectives of organizational effectiveness. Journal of Sport Management, 1(1), 37–47. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C.F., & Chen, F.S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29–35. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chitturi, R., Raghunathan, R., & Mahajan, V. (2008). Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. Journal of Marketing, 72(3), 48–63. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Churchill, G.A., Jr. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64–73. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cialdini, R.B., & Goldstein, N.J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 591–621. PubMed ID: 14744228 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clavio, G. (2011). Social media and the college football audience. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 4, 309–325.

  • Clavio, G., & Kian, T.M. (2010). Uses and gratifications of a retired female athlete’s Twitter followers. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 485–500. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Copulsky, J.R., & Wolf, M.J. (1990). Relationship marketing: Positioning for the future. Journal of Business Strategy, 11(4), 16–20. PubMed ID: 10106864 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creswell, J.W., Plano Clark, V.L., Gutmann, M.L., & Hanson, W.E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research, 209, 240–257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crowley, S.L., Worchel, F.F., & Ash, M.J. (1992). Self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report measures of childhood depression: An analysis by item. Journal of Personality Assessment, 59(1), 189–203. PubMed ID: 1512677 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuskelly, G. (2004). Volunteer retention in community sport organisations. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4(2), 59–76. doi:

  • Dholakia, U.M., Blazevic, V., Wiertz, C., & Algesheimer, R. (2009). Communal service delivery: How customers benefit from participation in firm-hosted virtual P3 communities. Journal of Science Research, 12, 208–226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dijkstra, M., Buijtels, H.E., & Van Raaij, W.F. (2005). Separate and joint effects of medium type on consumer responses: A comparison of television, print, and the Internet. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 377–386. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dolnicar, S., & Lazarevski, K. (2009). Marketing in non-profit organizations: An international perspective. International Marketing Review, 26(3), 275–291.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eagleman, A.N. (2013). Acceptance, motivations, and usage of social media as a marketing communications tool amongst employees of sport governing bodies. Sport Management Review, 16(4), 488–497. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filo, K., Lock, D., & Karg, A. (2015). Sport and social media research: A review. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 166–181. doi:

  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frisby, W. (1985). A conceptual framework for measuring the organizational structure and context of voluntary leisure service organizations. Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, 8(2), 605–613. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frisby, W. (1986). Measuring the organizational effectiveness of national sport governing bodies. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 11(2), 94–99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funk, D., Lock, D., Karg, A., & Pritchard, M. (2016). Sport consumer behavior research: Improving our game. Journal of Sport Management, 30(2), 113–116. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gronroos, C. (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: Toward a paradigm shift in marketing. Management Decision, 32(2), 4–32.

  • Grönroos, C. (2004). The relationship marketing process: Communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(2), 99–113. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gummesson, E. (1999). Implementation requires a relationship marketing paradigm. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(3), 242–249. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J.F., & Anderson, R.E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • Hall, M., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D., . . . Stowe, S. (2003). The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada’s non-profit and voluntary organizations. Retrieved from www.nonprofitscan.ca

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hambrick, M.E., & Kang, S.J. (2015). Pin it: Exploring how professional sports organizations use Pinterest as a communications and relationship-marketing tool. Communication & Sport, 3(4), 434–457. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollebeek, L.D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: Exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7/8), 785–807. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Y., Lodish, L.M., & Krieger, A.M. (2007). An analysis of real world TV advertising tests: A 15-year update. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(3), 341–353. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hur, Y., Ko, Y.J., & Claussen, C.L. (2011). Acceptance of sports websites: A conceptual model. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 12(3), 13–27. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hur, Y., Ko, Y.J., & Valacich, J. (2011). A structural model of the relationships between sport website quality, e-satisfaction, and e-loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 25(5), 458–473. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchins, A.L. (2016). Beyond resumes: LinkedIn for marketing educators. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 10(2), 137–147. doi:

  • Jedidi, K., Mela, C.F., & Gupta, S. (1999). Managing advertising and promotion for long-run profitability. Marketing Science, 18(1), 1–22. doi:

  • Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.W., James, J.D., & Kim, Y.K. (2013). A model of the relationship among sport consumer motives, spectator commitment, and behavioral intentions. Sport Management Review, 16(2), 173–185. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.K., Ko, Y.J., & James, J.D. (2011). The impact of relationship quality on attitude toward a sponsor. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 26(8), 566–576. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.K., & Trail, G.T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding relationships between sport consumers and sport organizations: A relationship quality approach. Journal of Sport Management, 25(1), 57–69. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.K., Trail, G., & Ko, Y.J. (2011). The influence of relationship quality on sport consumption behaviors: An empirical examination of the relationship quality framework. Journal of Sport Management, 25(6), 576–592. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.K., Trail, G.T., Woo, B., & Zhang, J. (2011). Sports consumer-team relationship quality: Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 12(3), 57–74. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kitchen, P.J., Brignell, J., Li, T., & Jones, G.S. (2004). The emergence of IMC: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(1), 19–30. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klososky, S. (2012). Social technology: The next frontier. Financial Executive, 28(4), 40–46.

  • Ko, J.H., Hur, C., & Kim, H. (2005). A personalized mobile learning system using multi-agent. In M. Dean, et al. (Eds.), WISE 2005 Workshops, LNCS 3807 (pp. 144–151). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koo, G.Y., Andrew, D.P., & Kim, S. (2008). Mediated relationships between the constituents of service quality and behavioural intentions: A study of women’s college basketball fans. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 4(4), 390–411. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kotler, P. (1979). Strategies for introducing marketing into nonprofit organizations. The Journal of Marketing, 43(1), 37–44. doi:

  • Kwon, H.H., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.S. (2005). Are multiple points of attachment necessary to predict cognitive, affective, conative, or behavioral loyalty? Sport Management Review, 8(3), 255–270. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Law, R., Leung, K., & Wong, J. (2004). The impact of the internet on travel agencies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(2), 100–107. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., Greenberg, B.A., & Nicholls, J.A.F. (2007). Teaching experiential learning: Adoption of an innovative course in an MBA marketing curriculum. Journal of Marketing Education, 29(1), 25–33.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lock, D., Filo, K., Kunkel, T., & Skinner, J. (2013). Thinking about the same things differently: Examining perceptions of a non-profit community sport organisation. Sport Management Review, 16(4), 438–450. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mela, C.F., Gupta, S., & Lehmann, D.R. (1997). The long-term impact of promotion and advertising on consumer brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(2), 248–261. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millar, P., & Doherty, A. (2016). Capacity building in nonprofit sport organizations: Development of a process model. Sport Management Review, 19(4), 365–377. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2009). A case study of organizational capacity in nonprofit community sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23(4), 457–482. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, A.J., & Marsden, P.V. (2008). The analysis of social networks. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 8(4), 222–269. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmatier, R.W., Dant, R.P., Grewal, D., & Evans, K.R. (2006). Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 136–153. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L., & Zeithaml, V.A. (1990). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S.H., & Kim, Y.M. (2000). Conceptualizing and measuring the attitudinal loyalty construct in recreational sport contexts. Journal of Sport Management, 14(3), 197–207. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfeffer, J. (1977). The ambiguity of leadership. Academy of Management Review, 2(1), 104–112. doi:

  • Pfeiffer, M., & Zinnbauer, M. (2010). Can old media enhance new media? How traditional advertising pays off for an online social network. Journal of Advertising Research, 50(1), 42–49. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riordan, C.M., Vandenberg, R.J., & Richardson, H.A. (2005). Employee involvement climate and organizational effectiveness. Human resource management: Published in cooperation with the School of Business Administration. The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 44(4), 471–488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, S., & France, A. (2011). Comparing sports marketing of Amateur Team Sports to Professional Team Sports. New Zealand Journal of Applied Business Research, 9(1), 47–61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruzic, D., Andrlic, B., & Ruzic, I. (2012). Web 2.0 promotion techniques in hospitality industry. International Journal of Management Cases, 18, 310–319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruzic, D., Bilos, A., & Turkalj, D. (2009). E-Marketing. Osijek, Croatia: Economic Faculty Osijek.

  • Schultz, D.E. (1999). Strategic Brand Communication Campaigns. New York, NY: NTC Business Books.

  • Shani, D. (2015). Sport marketing and non profit marketing—perfect together. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 12(2), 93–95. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shamima, A. (2012). Effective non-profit management: Context, concepts, and competencies. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor & Francis.

  • Shilbury, D., & Ferkins, L. (2015). Exploring the utility of collaborative governance in a national sport organization. Journal of Sport Management, 29(4), 380–397. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slack, T., & Parent, M. (2006). Understanding sport organizations: The application of organization theory (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T.M., Gopalakrishna, S., & Chatterjee, R. (2006). A three-stage model of integrated marketing communications at the marketing-sales interface. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(4), 564–579. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stier, W.F., & Schneider, R. (1999). Fundraising: An essential competency for the sport manager in the 21st century. The Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business, 35(2/3), 93–103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Experimental designs using ANOVA. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Tsuji, Y., Bennett, G., & Zhang, J. (2007). Consumer satisfaction with an action sports event. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(4), 199–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandenberg, R.J., & Lance, C.E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4–70. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Leeuwen, L., Quick, S., & Daniel, K. (2002). The sport spectator satisfaction model: A conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport Management Review, 5(2), 99–128. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., & Zhou, S. (2015). How do sports organizations use social media to build relationships? A content analysis of NBA clubs’ Twitter use. International Journal of Sport Communication, 8(2), 133–148. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitburn, D., Karg, A., & Turner, P. (2018). Exploring E-promotion in sport National Governing Bodies. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 18(5), 376–401. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winand, M., Scheerder, J., Vos, S., & Zintz, T. (2016). Do non-profit sport organizations innovate? Types and preferences of service innovation within regional sport federations. Innovation, 18(3), 289–308. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winand, M., Vos, S., Claessens, M., Thibaut, E., & Scheerder, J. (2014). A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance: Perspectives from the literature. Managing Leisure, 19(2), 121–150. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winand, M., Zintz, T., Bayle, E., & Robinson, L. (2010). Organizational performance of Olympic sport governing bodies: Dealing with measurement and priorities. Managing Leisure, 15(4), 279–307. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winand, M., Zintz, T., & Scheerder, J. (2012). A financial management tool for sport federations. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 2(3), 225–240. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Worth, M. (2009). Nonprofit management, principles and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Yoshida, M., & James, J.D. (2010). Customer satisfaction with game and service experiences: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Sport Management, 24(3), 338–361. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31–46.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 315 315 134
Full Text Views 31 31 11
PDF Downloads 21 21 5