Critical Discourse Analysis as Theory, Methodology, and Analyses in Sport Management Studies

in Journal of Sport Management
View More View Less
  • 1 Temple University
  • 2 University of Regina
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $85.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $216.00

Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a theory, methodology, and type of analysis used across various fields, including linguistics, sociology, and philosophy. CDA focuses on how language is used; discourses are found within language, and knowledge is created through these discourses. CDA can be beneficial to sport management scholars who seek to question existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to highlight the value and appropriateness of CDA for Journal of Sport Management readers in an effort to see this approach become more prevalent in the journal. The authors shared their perspectives about the lack of critical qualitative methodologies in Journal of Sport Management, presented theoretical foundations of CDA, showcased its application in sport management studies, and explored four theoretical, methodological, and analytical approaches for future use. The authors also provided suggestions for scholars to adopt discourse-related methodologies to enhance knowledge creation in their field. Finally, the authors acknowledged the limitations of this approach.

Sveinson and Heffernan are with the School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Hoeber is with the Faculty of Kinesiology & Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, Canada.

Sveinson (katie.sveinson@temple.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Adler, P., Forbes, L. & Willmott, H. (2008). Critical management studies. In J. Walsh & A. Brief (Eds.), Academy of management annals (Vol. 1, pp. 119180). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amara, M., & Henry, I. P. (2010). Sport, Muslim identities and cultures in the UK, an emerging policy issue: Case studies of Leicester and Birmingham. European Sport Management Quarterly, 10(4), 419443. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angermuller, J., Maingueneau, D., & Wodak, R. (Eds.). (2014). The discourse studies reader. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • Chen, C., & Mason, D.S. (2018). A postcolonial reading of representations of non-western leadership in sport management studies. Journal of Sport Management, 32(2), 150169. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chouliaraki, L., & Fairclough, N. (2010). Critical discourse analysis in organizational studies: Towards an integrationist methodology. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 12131218. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coyne, V. (2020). The Rooney rule: Is the NFL doing enough to increase minority head Coaches? Sport Lawyers Journal, 27, 205223.

  • Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research. London, UK:SAGE.

  • Cunningham, G., & Fink, J. (2006). Diversity issues in sport and leisure. Journal of Sport Management, 20(4), 455465. doi:

  • De Fina, A., & Georgakopoulou, A. (2008). Introduction: Narrative analysis in the shift from texts to practices. Text & Talk, 28(3), 275281.

  • Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London, UK: Longman.

  • Fairclough, N. (2016). A dialectical-relational approach to critical discourse analysis in social research. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods in critical discourse analysis (3rd ed., pp. 86108). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairclough, N., Mulderrig, J., & Wodak, R. (2011). Critical discourse analysis. In T.A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (2nd ed., pp. 357378). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T.A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as social interaction: A multidisciplinary introduction (1st ed., Vol. 2, pp. 258284). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fink, J.S., & Kensicki, L.J. (2002). An imperceptible difference: Visual and textual constructions of femininity in Sports Illustrated and Sports Illustrated for Women. Mass Communication and Society, 5(3), 317339. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flowerdew, J., & Richardson, J.E. (2018). Introduction. In J. Flowerdew & J.E. Richardson (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of critical discourse studies (1st ed., pp. 119). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frisby, W. (2005). The good, the bad, and the ugly: Critical sport management research. Journal of Sport Management, 19(1), 112. doi:

  • Gee, J.P., & Handford, M. (2012). Introduction. In J.P. Gee & M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (1st ed., pp. 16). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heffernann, C.D. (2018). Gender allyship: Considering the role of men in addressing the gender-leadership gap in sport organizations (Publication No. 10846287) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Helsloot, N., & Hak, T. (1994). Pêcheux’s contribution to discourse analysis. In T. Hak & N. Helsloot (Eds.), Michael Pêcheux: Automatic discourse analysis (D. Macey Trans.; pp. 320). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Brill Rodopi.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, J. (2020, January 11). NFL owners have a problem with coaches of color. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/01/nfl-owners-have-problem-coaches-color/604771/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoeber, L., & Shaw, S. (2017). Contemporary qualitative research methods in sport management. Sport Management Review, 20(1), 47.

  • Hu, X., & Henry, I. (2017). Reform and maintenance of Juguo Tizhi: Governmental management discourse of Chinese elite sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17(4), 531553.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, J.D. (2018). Not all doctoral programs are created equally. Journal of Sport Management, 32(1), 110.

  • Janscary, D., Hollerer, M.A., & Meyer, R.E. (2016). Critical analysis of visual and multimodal texts. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse studies (3rd ed., pp. 205233). London, England, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Journal of Sport Management. (2020). About. https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jsm/jsm-overview.xml?tab_body=null-7641

  • Kang, K.D. (2018). Language and ideology: Althusser’s theory of ideology. Language Sciences, 70, 6881. doi:

  • Knoppers, A. (2015). Assessing the sociology of sport: On critical sport sociology and sport management. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(4-5), 496501. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

  • Kress, G., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. London: Arnold Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kress, G., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

  • Lacan, J., & Wilden, A. (1968). The language of the self: The function of language in psychoanalysis (A. Wilden Trans.). Baltimore, MA: John Hopkins University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazar, M. (2005). Feminist critical discourse analysis gender, power and ideology in discourse. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Lynch, M., & Yerashotis, G. (2019). Sporting chancers: Three Canadian corporations’ representations of sport-for-youth-development. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 54(6), 666690. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Machin, D., & Mayr, A. (2012). How to do critical discourse analysis. London, UK: SAGE.

  • Markula, P., & Pringle, R. (2006). Foucault, sport and exercise. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Markula, P., & Silk, M. (2011). Qualitative research for physical culture. London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

  • McGannon, K.R. (2017). Critical discourse analysis in sport and exercise: What, why and how. In B. Smith & A.C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 230242). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGarry, J.E. (2020). Enact, discard, transform: An impact agenda. Journal of Sport Management, 34(1), 18. doi:

  • Newman, J.I. (2014). Sport without management. Journal of Sport Management, 28(6), 603615. doi:

  • O’Hallarn, B., Shapiro, S. L., Wittkower, D. E., Ridinger, L., & Hambrick, M. E. (2019). A model for the generation of public sphere-like activity in sport-themed twitter hashtags. Sport Management Review, 22(3), 407418. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oswald, L.R. (2012). Marketing semiotics: Signs, strategies, and brand value. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Phillips, L., & Jørgensen, M.W. (2002). Discourse analysis: As theory and method. London, England, UK: SAGE.

  • Phillips, N., & Hardy, C. (2002). Discourse analysis: Investigating processes of social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

  • Phillips, N., Sewell, G., & Jaynes, S. (2008). Applying critical discourse analysis in strategic management research. Organizational Research Methods, 11(4), 770789. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potter, J. (2012). Discursive psychology and discourse analysis. In J.P. Gee & M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (1st ed., pp. 104119). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reisigl, M., & Wodak, R. (2016). The discourse-historical approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (3rd ed., pp. 2361). London, England, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Šerić, N., & Ljubica, J. (2018). Qualitative market research methods in the sports industry. In N. Šeric & J. Ljubica (Eds.), Market research methods in the sports industry. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, S., & Hoeber, L. (2016). Unclipping our wings: Ways forward in qualitative research in sport management. Sport Management Review, 19(3), 255265. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sigelman, L. (1998). Hail to the Redskins? Public reactions to a racially insensitive team name. Sociology of Sport Journal, 15(4), 317325. doi:

  • Singer, J.N., Shaw, S., Hoeber, L., Walker, N., Agyemang, K.J.A., & Rich, K. (2019). Critical conversations about qualitative research in sport management. Journal of Sport Management, 33(1), 5063. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K.R. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101121. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spicer, A., Alvesson, M., & Kärreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: The unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62(4), 537560. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sveinson, K., & Hoeber, L. (2020). “So begins the demise of #Superman from Metropolis”: Consumers’ Twitter reactions to an athlete’s transgression. Sport Management Review, 23(5), 810823. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tracy, S.J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “Big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837851.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Dijk, T.A. (2001). Discourse, ideology and context. Folia Linguistica, 35(1–2), 1140.

  • van Dijk, T.A. (2008). Discourse and power. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

  • van Dijk, T.A. (2016). Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (3rd ed., pp. 6285). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Dijk, T.A. (2018). Socio-cognitive discourse studies. In J. Flowerdew & J. E. Richardson (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of critical discourse studies (1st ed., pp. 119). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wagner, U., & Møller Pedersen, K. (2014). The IOC and the doping issue: An institutional discursive approach to organizational identity construction. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 160173. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weber, J.D., & Carini, R.M. (2013). Where are the female athletes in Sports Illustrated? A content analysis of covers (2000–2011). International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(2), 196203. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whigham, S., & Bairner, A. (2018). Analysing sport policy and politics: The promises and challenges of synthesising methodological approaches. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 10(4), 721740. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wodak, R. (2001). What CDA is about: A summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods in critical discourse analysis (2nd ed., pp. 113). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wodak, R., & Krzyzanowski, M. (Eds.). (2008). Qualitative discourse analysis in the social sciences. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

  • Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2016). Critical discourse studies: History, agenda, theory and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse studies (3rd ed., pp. 122). London, UK: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yan, G., & Watanabe, N.M. (2014). The Liancourt rocks: Media dynamics and national identities at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. International Journal of Sport Communication, 7(4), 495515. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 524 524 109
Full Text Views 50 50 20
PDF Downloads 31 31 14