An Analysis of Identity Conflict Among Health-Conscious Sport Fans

in Journal of Sport Management
View More View Less
  • 1 Merrimack College, North Andover, MA, USA
  • | 2 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Restricted access

Scholars have begun to explore the interplay between the multiple identities within a sport fan’s salience hierarchy, noting fandom may compete with other central roles. Researchers have also recently emphasized well-being outcomes for fans, with increasing focus on physical health. Though sport consumer behavior and health consciousness have concurrently emerged, the social psychological connection between the two is unclear. Thus, we aim to clarify this relationship. We leverage an emerging quantitative approach: polynomial regression and response surface methodology. Our findings indicate individuals who value both fandom and health consciousness (i.e., demonstrate high fan identity and health consciousness congruence) experience identity conflict, with men reporting higher levels of identity conflict than women. Thus, we contribute to literature on the potential negative sides (or challenges) of fan identity. The food and sedentarism common to fan culture appear to prompt psychological turmoil for health-conscious individuals. Fan identity may naturally integrate with other social roles, yet our results indicate fandom and health consciousness are often viewed in conflict.

  • Afable, M.V. (2019). Health-conscious consumers and the demand for holistic nutrition. Bold Business. https://www.boldbusiness.com/health/health-conscious-consumers-demand-holistic-nutrition/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aiken, L.S., & West, S.G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage.

  • Alegria, M., Pescosolido, B.A., Williams, S., & Canino, G. (2011). Culture, race/ethnicity and disparities: Fleshing out the socio-cultural framework for health services disparities. In B.A. Pescosolido, J.K. Martin, J.D. McLeod, & A. Rogers (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing (pp. 363382). Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Assari, S., & Lankarani, M.M. (2017). Demographic and socioeconomic determinants of physical and mental self-rated health across 10 ethnic groups in the United States. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research, 3, 185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baer, M.D., Frank, E., Matta, F.K., Luciano, M., & Wellman, N. (2021). Undertrusted, overtrusted, or just right? The fairness of (in)congruence between trust wanted and trust received. Academy of Management Journal, 64(1), 180206. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.0334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bircher, J. (2005). Towards a dynamic definition of health and disease. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 8(3), 335341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-005-0538-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brady, S., D’Ambrosio, L.A., Felts, A., Rula, E.Y., Kell, K.P., & Coughlin, J.F. (2020). Reducing isolation and loneliness through membership in a fitness program for older adults: Implications for health. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 39(3), 301310. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464818807820

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branscombe, N.R., & Wann, D.L. (1992). Role of identification with a group, arousal, categorization processes, and self-esteem in sports spectator aggression. Human Relations, 45(10), 10131033. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679204501001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callero, P.L. (1985). Role-identity salience. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48(3), 203214. https://doi.org/10.2307/3033681

  • Chalip, L. (2006). Toward a distinctive sport management discipline. Journal of Sport Management, 20(1), 121. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.20.1.1

  • Chandler, M.J., Lalonde, C.E., Sokol, B.W., Hallett, D., & Marcia, J.E. (2003). Personal persistence, identity development, and suicide: A study of native and non-native North American adolescents. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(2), viiviii, 1–130. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5834.00246

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christakis, N.A., & Fowler, J.H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370379. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa066082

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.

  • Cornil, Y., & Chandon, P. (2013). From fan to fat? Vicarious losing increases unhealthy eating, but self-affirmation is an effective remedy. Psychological Science, 24(10), 19361946. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613481232

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, R. (1980). Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life. International Journal of Health Services, 10(3), 365388. https://doi.org/10.2190/3H2H-3XJN-3KAY-G9NY

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delia, E.B., Melton, E.N., Sveinson, K., Cunningham, G.B., & Locke, D. (2022). Understanding the lack of diversity in sport consumer behavior research. Journal of Sport Management, 36(3), 265276. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2021-0227

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doherty, A. (2013). Investing in sport management: The value of good theory. Sport Management Review, 16(1), 511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2011.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drygas, W., Ruszkowska, J., Philpott, M, Bjorkstrom, O, Parker, M., Ireland, R., Roncarolo, F., & Teconi, M. (2011). Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: Results from the “Healthy Stadia” project. Health Promotion International, 28, 157165. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dar088

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dutta-Bergman, M.J. (2004). Health attitudes, health cognitions, and health-related behaviors among internet health information seekers: Population-based survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 6(2), e15. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6.2.e15

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebrahimi, M., Kouchaki, M., & Patrick, V.M. (2020). Juggling work and home selves: Low identity integration feels less authentic and increases unethicality. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 158, 101111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2019.02.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edwards, J.R. (2002). Alternatives to difference scores: Polynomial regression analysis and response surface methodology. In F. Drasgow& N.W. Schmitt (Eds.), Advances in measurement and data analysis (pp. 363382). Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edwards, J.R., & Cable, D.A. (2009). The value of value congruence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(3), 654677. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014891

  • Edwards, J.R., & Parry, M.E. (1993). On the use of polynomial regression equations as an alternative to difference scores in organizational research. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 15771613. https://doi.org/10.5465/256822

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, P. (2020). Hard seltzer spilling into sports partnerships. Front Office Sports. https://frontofficesports.com/hard-seltzer-growth/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frisen, A., & Wangqvist, M. (2011). Emerging adults in Sweden: Identity formation in the light of love, work, and family. Journal of Adolescent Research, 26, 200221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galvin, R. (2002). Disturbing notions of chronic illness and individual responsibility: Towards a genealogy of morals. Health, 6(2), 107137. https://doi.org/10.1177/136345930200600201

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gatersleben, B., Murtagh, N., & Abrahamse, W. (2014). Values, identity and pro-environmental behaviour. Contemporary Social Science, 9(4), 374392. https://doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2012.682086

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Wiley.

  • Hogg, M.A., Terry, D.J., & White, K.M. (1995). A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(4), 255269. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, D.B. (1992). Examining the descriptive value of “Ritual” in consumer behavior: View from the field. Advances in Consumer Research, 19(1), 213218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horowitz, M.J. (2012). Self-identity theory and research methods. Journal of Research Practice, 8, M14.

  • Howard, G.S., & Dailey, P.R. (1979). Response-shift bias: A source of contamination of self-report measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 144. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.2.144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyatt, C., Kerwin, S., Hoeber, L., & Sveinson, K. (2018). The reverse socialization of sport fans: How children impact their parents’ sport fandom. Journal of Sport Management, 32(6), 542554. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2017-0263

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyatt, C.G., & Foster, W.M. (2015). Using identity work theory to understand the de-escalation of fandom: A study of former fans of National Hockey League teams. Journal of Sport Management, 29(4), 443460. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2013-0327

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Berg, B.K., & Chelladurai, P. (2015). Spectator sport and population health: A scoping study. Journal of Sport Management, 29(6), 705725. https://doi.org/10.1123/JSM.2014-0283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Berg, B.K., & Chelladurai, P. (2019). Spectator sport and population health: A consultation with US College athletics employees. Journal of Global Sport Management, 7(1), 2142. https://doi.org/10.1080/24704067.2019.1566755

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Sato, M., & Filo, K. (2020). Transformative sport service research: Linking sport services with well-being. Journal of Sport Management, 34(4), 285290. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2020-0102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inoue, Y., Sato, M., & Nakazawa, M. (2018). Association between sporting event attendance and self-rated health: An analysis of multiyear cross-sectional national data in Japan. Global Health Research and Policy, 3(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0068-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ireland, R., & Watkins, F. (2010). Football fans and food: A case study of a football club in the English premier league. Public Health Nutrition, 13(5), 682687. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009991765

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jares, J. (1966). Their business is peanuts. Sports Illustrated. https://vault.si.com/vault/1966/01/17/their-business-is-peanuts

  • Katz, M., Heere, B., & Melton, E.N. (2020). Predicting fan behavior through egocentric network analysis: Examining season-ticket holder renewal. Journal of Sport Management, 34, 217228. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katz, M., Mansfield, A.C., & Tyler, B.D. (2020). The strength of fan ties: Emotional support in sport fan egocentric networks. Journal of Sport Management, 34(4), 291302. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, K.A., & Byon, K.K. (2020). The dark side of spectator behavior: Effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior on anger, rumination, and revisit intention. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 29(3), 228240. https://doi.org/10.32731/SMQ.293.092020.06

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraft, F.B., & Goodell, P.W. (1993). Identifying the health conscious consumer. Marketing Health Services, 13, 18.

  • Larkin, B., & Fink, J.S. (2019). Toward a better understanding of fan aggression and dysfunction: The moderating role of collective narcissism. Journal of Sport Management, 33(2), 6978. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, J.T.F., Tsui, H.Y., Mo, P.K.H., Mak, W.W.S., & Griffiths, S. (2015). World Cup’s impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: Comparing results of two serial population-based surveys. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 27, NP1973NP1984.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leal, S. (2019). Behind the meteoric rise of Hard Seltzer. Wine Enthusiast. https://www.winemag.com/2019/09/20/rise-of-hard-seltzer/

  • Lock, D.J., & Funk, D.C. (2016). The multiple in-group identity framework. Sport Management Review, 19(2), 8596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2015.10.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lock, D.J., & Heere, B. (2017). Identity crisis: A theoretical analysis of “team identification” research. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17(4), 413435. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2017.1306872

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lock, D.J., Taylor, T., Funk, D.C., & Darcy, S. (2012). Exploring the development of team identification. Journal of Sport Management, 26(4), 283294. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.26.4.283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacCharles, J.D.& Melton, E.N. (2021a). Charting their own path: Using life course theory to explore the careers of gay men working in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 35(5), 407425. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacCharles, J.D.& Melton, E.N. (2021b). Risks of expressing your authentic self in sport: The influence of stigma covering on perceived fit and hiring recommendations. Sport, Business, Management: An International Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0059

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansfield, A.C. (2020). “Count the ways that it impacts your life”: New parenthood and sport fandom. Journal of Sport Management, 34(5), 462474. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0285

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansfield, A.C., Katz, M., & Delia, E.B. (2021). The identity work of health-conscious sport fans. Journal of Sport Management. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2020-0424

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matta, F.K., Scott, B.A, Koopman, J., & Conlon, D.E. (2015). Does seeing “eye to eye” affect work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior? A role theory perspective on LMX agreement. Academy of Management Journal, 58(6), 16861708. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2014.0106

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCall, G.J., & Simmons, J.L. (1978). Identities and interactions: An examination of human associations in everyday life. Free Press.

  • Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. University of Chicago Press.

  • Melton, E.N. (2013). Women, femininity, and sexuality. In M.B. Sartore-Baldwin (Ed.), Sexual stigma in sport. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

  • Melton, E.N. (2015). Creating social change in and through intercollegiate sport. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 8(1), 113. https://doi.org/10.1123/jis.2015-0017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melton, E.N.& MacCharles, J.D. (2021). Sport marketing through a rainbow lens. Sport Management Review, 24(3), 421438. https://doi.org/10.1080/14413523.2021.1880742

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, L. (2019). Generation active: The 80% clubs can’t afford to ignore. https://www.lesmills.com/us/clubs-and-facilities/research-insights/audience-insights/generation-active-the-80-your-club-cant-ignore/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2019). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed). Muthén & Muthén.

  • O’Neil, J.M., Helms, B.J., Gable, R.K., David, L., & Wrightsman, L.S. (1986). Gender-role conflict scale: College men’s fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335350. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00287583

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, M.J., Trail, G.T., Dick, R.J., & Gillentine, A.J. (2005). Fans vs. spectators: An analysis of those who attend intercollegiate football games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 4353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rolls, B.J., Fedoroff, I.C., & Guthrie, J.F. (1991). Gender differences in eating behavior and body weight regulation. Health Psychology, 10(2), 133. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.10.2.133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. Basic Books.

  • Shapiro, S.L, Ridinger, L.L., & Trail, G.T. (2013). An analysis of multiple spectator consumption behaviors, identification, and future behavioral intentions within the context of a new college football program. Journal of Sport Management, 27(2), 130145. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.27.2.130

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shettleworth, S.J. (1975). Reinforcement and the organization of behavior in golden hamsters: Hunger, environment, and food reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1, 56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siebert, D.C., & Siebert, C.F. (2005). The caregiver role identity scale: A validation study. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(3), 204212. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731504272779

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soelton, M., Lestari, P.A., Arief, H., & Putra, R.L. (2020, February). The effect of role conflict and burnout toward turnover intention at software industries, work stress as moderating variables. Presented at the 4th International Conference on Management, Economics and Business (ICMEB 2019) (pp. 185190). Atlantis Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spaaij, R. (2014). Sports crowd violence: An interdisciplinary synthesis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(2), 146155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2014.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparvero, E.S., & Warner, S. (2019). NFL play 60: Managing the intersection of professional sport and obesity. Sport Management Review, 22(1), 153166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2018.06.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strachan, S.M., & Brawley, L.R. (2008). Reactions to a perceived challenge to identity: A focus on exercise and healthy eating. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(5), 575588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105308090930

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stryker, S., & Burke, P.J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(4), 284297. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695840

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stryker, S., & Serpe, R.T. (1994). Identity salience and psychological centrality: Equivalent, overlapping, or complementary concepts? Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 1635. https://doi.org/10.2307/2786972

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sukalakamala, P., Sukalakamala, S., & Young, P. (2013). An exploratory study of the concession preferences of generation Y consumers. Journal of Food Service Business Research, 16(4), 378390. https://doi.org/10.1080/15378020.2013.824278

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sveningsson, S., & Alvesson, M. (2003). Managing managerial identities: Organizational fragmentation, discourse, and identity struggle. Human Relations, 56(10), 11631193. https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267035610001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sweeney, D.R., & Quimby, D.G. (2012). Exploring the physical health behavior differences between high and low identified sports fans. The Sport Journal, 15, 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swinburn, B., & Shelly, A. (2008). Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits. International Journal of Obesity, 32, S132S136. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.249.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Syed, M., & McLean, K.C. (2016). Understanding identity integration: Theoretical, methodological, and applied issues. Journal of Adolescence, 47(1), 109118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.09.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tainsky, S., & Jasielec, M. (2014). Television viewership of out-of-market games in league markets: Traditional demand shifters and local team influence. Journal of Sport Management, 28, 94108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin& S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 3347). Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trail, G.T., Robinson, M.J., Dick, R.J., & Gillentine, A.J. (2003). Motives and points of attachment: Fans versus spectators in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 12, 217227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakefield, K.L., & Sloan, H.J. (1995). The effects of team loyalty and selected stadium factors on spectator attendance. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 153172. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.9.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, S.N., & Hill-Polerecky, D.M. (1997). Psychometric evaluation of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (Unpublished manuscript). University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Nursing, Lincoln.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L. (2006). Understanding the positive social psychological benefits of sport team identification: The team identification-social psychological health model. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10(4), 272296. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.10.4.272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Friedman, K., McHale, M., & Jaffe, A. (2003). The norelco sport fanatics survey: Examining behaviors of sport fans. Psychological Reports, 92(3), 930936. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2003.92.3.930

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wann, D.L., Waddill, P.J., & Dunham, M.D. (2004). Using sex and gender role orientation to predict level of sport fandom. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 367377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • West, C., & Zhong, C.B. (2015). Moral cleansing. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 221225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.09.022

  • Yancey, A., Winfield, D., Larsen, J., Anderson, M., Jackson, P., Overton, J., Wilson, S., Rossum, A.& Kumanyika, S. (2009). “Live, learn and play”: Building strategic alliances between professional sports and public health. Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 322325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.06.029

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeigler, E.F. (2007). Sport management must show social concern as it develops tenable theory. Journal of Sport Management, 21(3) 297318. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.21.3.297

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B.S. (1979). The enjoyment of watching sports contests. Sports, Games, and Play: Social and Psychological Viewpoints, 1, 297335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 150 150 72
Full Text Views 12 12 2
PDF Downloads 18 18 2