The Effect of Functional Training on the Incidence of Shoulder Pain and Strength in Intercollegiate Swimmers

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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To determine whether functional training reduces the incidence of shoulder pain and increases strength in intercollegiate swimmers.




Laboratory and weight room.


26 intercollegiate swimmers (13 men, 13 women).


6-wk functional training program.

Main Outcome Measures:

Incidence of shoulder pain was recorded throughout the study. Isokinetic shoulder strength was assessed before and after training.


A t test showed significant differences (P < .05) for the incidence of shoulder pain between the experimental (mean episodes = 1.8 ± 2.1) and control (mean episodes = 4.6 ± 4.7) groups. ANOVA with repeated measures revealed no significant strength differences between groups but exhibited significant within-group increases.


Incorporating functional exercises might reduce incidence of shoulder pain in swimmers. The results also validate the need to modify preventive programs as the demands of the sport change throughout the season.

Swanik and Swanik are with the Dept of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Lephart is with the Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Center for Sports Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15203. Huxel is a doctoral candidate at Temple University.