Shoulder External- and Internal-Rotation Isokinetic Strength in Master’s Swimmers

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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To establish muscle-strength and -balance profiles for shoulder external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) in master’s swimmers.


Cross-sectional study.




Six male and seven female master’s swimmers and a matched control group.


Concentric and eccentric ER and IR shoulder movements were recorded (Kin-Com™ isokinetic dynamometer). Peak-torque values, concentric ER:IR ratios, eccentric ER:IR (conventional) ratios, and eccentric ER:concentric IR (functional) ratios were examined between groups.


Mean peak-torque values ranged from 21.23 to 37.69 N · m for the swimmers, which, although 15% to 27% greater than those of the controls, were not statistically different. Conventional (0.78:0.86) and functional (1.06:1.17) ratios did not differ between groups.


These data will contribute to the development of guidelines for assessing shoulder-muscle strength in Master’s swimmers.

The authors are with the School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9015, New Zealand.

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