Measurement Properties of Headache-Specific Outcomes Scales in Adolescent Athletes

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context:

Recurrent headaches significantly affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults; the impact of headache on HRQOL among adolescents is unknown, and the psychometric properties of headache-specific outcomes instruments have not been adequately studied in this population.

Objective:

To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment (PedMIDAS) in healthy adolescent athletes.

Design:

Descriptive survey.

Setting:

High school athletic training facilities during the fall sports season.

Participants:

177 high school athletes (89 males and 88 females).

Interventions:

A survey consisting of a demographic and concussion-history questionnaire, a graded symptom scale, the HIT-6, and the PedMIDAS. Internal consistency (α), test–retest reliability (rs), Bland-Altman analyses, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate psychometric properties and age and gender differences.

Main Outcome Measures:

The HIT-6 and PedMIDAS item and total scores.

Results:

Test–retest reliability for the HIT-6 total score was rs = .72, and reliability of individual items ranged from rs = .52 to .67. The test–retest reliability for the PedMIDAS total score was rs = .61, and reliability of individual items ranged from rs = .23 to .62. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency: HIT-6 α = .89−.90 and PedMIDAS α = .71−.75.

Conclusions:

The authors found moderate test–retest reliability for the HIT-6 and the PedMIDAS in a healthy adolescent athlete population. Research on the applicability and utility of the HIT-6 and PedMIDAS in concussed adolescents is warranted.

The authors are with the Athletic Training Program, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ.