The Postinjury Psychological Sequelae of High-Level Jamaican Athletes: Exploration of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder–Self-Efficacy Conceptualization

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context: Athletes at the highest levels appear to be most affected by sport-related injuries and suffer both physiologically and psychologically. Established models of psychological responses to injury, however, do not offer a comprehensive explanation based on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although some studies suggest that injuries may be interpreted as traumatic. Studies also suggest that perceived self-efficacy may be a mediator of PTSD development. Objective: This study examines the psychological sequelae experienced by high-level athletes as a result of sport-related injuries based on a PTSD–self-efficacy framework. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Participants: Forty-six athletes (30 males and 16 females) from 4 different sports were conveniently sampled and completed a questionnaire battery assessing injury characteristics, trauma sequelae, and self-efficacy. Main Outcome Measures: Present injury status, PTSD symptomatology, and general self-efficacy. Results: Injury was found to be associated with elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology. The presence of injury was a significant predictor of general PTSD and, specifically, hyperarousal symptoms; however, general self-efficacy was not found to predict trauma-related symptoms. There were indications, however, that self-efficacy beliefs may affect injury-related factors. Conclusions: This research highlights the presence of PTSD-related psychological dysfunction associated with sport injury, and further uncovers the possible impacts of self-efficacy beliefs in managing the stress of injury. These findings highlight the need for psychological support as injured athletes undergo rehabilitation.

The authors are with the Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, West Indies.

Bateman (andrebateman@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
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