Correlation Among Y-Balance Test–Lower Quarter Composite Scores, Hip Musculoskeletal Characteristics, and Pitching Kinematics in NCAA Division I Baseball Pitchers

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context: Numerous studies have reported kinematic data on baseball pitchers using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis, but no studies to date have correlated this data with clinical outcome measures. Objective: To examine the relationship among Y-Balance Test–Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) composite scores, musculoskeletal characteristics of the hip, and pitching kinematics in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I baseball pitchers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 3D motion analysis laboratory. Participants: Nineteen healthy male college baseball pitchers. Main Outcome Measures: Internal and external hip passive range of motion, hip abduction strength, YBT-LQ composite scores, and kinematic variables of the pitching motion. Results: Stride length demonstrated a moderate positive correlation with dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r = .524, P = .02) and nondominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r = .550, P = .01), and a weak positive correlation with normalized time to maximal humerus velocity (r = .458, P = .04). Stride length had a moderate negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r = −.522, P = .02) and dominant hip total rotational motion (TRM; r = −.660, P = .002), and had a strong negative correlation with normalized time from stride foot contact to maximal knee flexion (r = −.722, P < .001). Dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score had a weak negative correlation with hip abduction strength difference (r = −.459, P = .04) and normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r = −.468, P = .04). Nondominant limb YBT-LQ composite score demonstrated a weak negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r = −.450, P = .05) and had a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r = −.668, P = .001). There were no other significant relationships between the remaining variables. Conclusions: YBT-LQ is a clinical measure that can be used to correlate with hip musculoskeletal characteristics and pitching kinematics in NCAA Division I pitchers.

Culiver, Garrison, Creed, and Goto are with Texas Health Sports Medicine, Fort Worth, TX. Conway is with Orthopedic Specialty Associates, Fort Worth, TX. Werner is with Sherry Werner Fastpitch Academy, Arlington, TX.

Garrison (craiggarrison@texashealth.org) is corresponding author.
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