Females Decrease Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Following 4-Week Jump-Landing Feedback Intervention Without Negative Affect on Vertical Jump Performance

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context: High vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) when initiating ground contact during jump landing is one biomechanical factor that may increase risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Intervention programs have been developed to decrease vGRF to reduce injury risk, yet generating high forces is still critical for performing dynamic activities such as a vertical jump task. Objective: To evaluate if a jump-landing feedback intervention, cueing a decrease in vGRF, would impair vertical jump performance in a separate task (Vertmax). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Patients (or Other Participants): Forty-eight recreationally active females (feedback: n = 31; 19.63 [1.54] y, 1.6 [0.08] cm, 58.13 [7.84] kg and control: n = 15; 19.6 [1.68] y, 1.64 [0.05] cm, 60.11 [8.36] kg) participated in this study. Intervention: Peak vGRF during a jump landing and Vertmax were recorded at baseline and 4 weeks post. The feedback group participated in 12 sessions over the 4-week period consisting of feedback provided for 6 sets of 6 jumps off a 30-cm box. The control group was instructed to return to the lab 28 days following the baseline measurements. Main Outcome Measures: Change scores (postbaseline) were calculated for peak vGRF and Vertmax. Group differences were evaluated for peak vGRF and Vertmax using a Mann–Whitney U test (P < .05). Results: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline (P > .05). The feedback group (−0.5 [0.3] N/kg) demonstrated a greater decrease in vGRF compared with the control group (0.01 [0.3] N/kg) (t(46) = −5.52, P < .001). There were no significant differences in change in Vertmax between groups (feedback = 0.9 [2.2] cm, control = 0.06 [2.1] cm; t(46) = 0.46, P = .64). Conclusions: While the feedback intervention was effective in decreasing vGRF when landing from a jump, these participants did not demonstrate changes in vertical jump performance when assessed during a different task. Practitioners should consider implementing feedback intervention programs to reduce peak vGRF, without worry of diminished vertical jump performance.

Ericksen is with the Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI. Lefevre is with Sports Medicine Department, The University of Toledo Physicians, Toledo, OH. Luc-Harkey is with the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Orthopaedic and Arthritis Center for Outcomes Research, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA. Thomas is with the Department of Kinesiology, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC. Gribble is with the Division of Athletic Training, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. Pietrosimone is with the Department of Exercise and Sport Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Ericksen (erickseh@uwm.edu) is corresponding author.
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