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Context: A bias toward femoral internal rotation is a potential precursor to functional valgus collapse. The gluteal muscles may play a critical role in mitigating these effects. Objective: Determine the extent to which gluteal strength and activation mediate associations between femoral alignment measures and functional valgus collapse. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-five females (age = 20.1 [1.7] y; height = 165.2 [7.6] cm; weight = 68.6 [13.1] kg) and 45 males (age = 20.8 [2.0] y; height = 177.5 [8.7] cm; weight = 82.7 [16.5] kg), healthy for 6 months prior. Intervention(s): Femoral alignment was measured prone. Hip-extension and abduction strength were obtained using a handheld dynamometer. Three-dimensional biomechanics and surface electromyography were obtained during single-leg forward landings. Main Outcome Measures: Forward stepwise multiple linear regressions determined the influence of femoral alignment on functional valgus collapse and the mediating effects of gluteus maximus and medius strength and activation. Results: In females, less hip abduction strength predicted greater peak hip adduction angle (R2 change = .10; P = .02), and greater hip-extensor activation predicted greater peak knee internal rotation angle (R2 change = .14; P = .01). In males, lesser hip abduction strength predicted smaller peak knee abduction moment (R2 change = .11; P = .03), and the combination of lesser hip abduction peak torque and lesser gluteus medius activation predicted greater hip internal rotation angle (R2 change = .15; P = .04). No meaningful mediation effects were observed (υadj < .01). Conclusions: In females, after accounting for femoral alignment, less gluteal strength and higher muscle activation were marginally associated with valgus movement. In males, less gluteal strength was associated with a more varus posture. Gluteal strength did not mediate femoral alignment. Future research should determine the capability of females to use their strength efficiently.
Hogg is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN, USA. Ackerman is with the Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. Nguyen is with Division of Athletic Training, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Ross, Schmitz, and Shultz are with the Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA. Vanrenterghem is with the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.