Roller Massage Prior to Running Does Not Affect Gait Mechanics in Well-Trained Runners

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

Click name to view affiliation

Jessica G. Hunter
Search for other papers by Jessica G. Hunter in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Gina L. Garcia
Search for other papers by Gina L. Garcia in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sushant M. Ranadive
Search for other papers by Sushant M. Ranadive in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jae Kun Shim
Search for other papers by Jae Kun Shim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Ross H. Miller
Search for other papers by Ross H. Miller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Context: Understanding if roller massage prior to a run can mitigate fatigue-related decrements in muscle force production during prolonged running is important because of the association between fatigue and running-related injury. Objective: The authors investigated whether a bout of roller massage prior to running would (1) mitigate fatigue-related increases in vertical average load rate and free moment of the ground reaction force of running and (2) mitigate decreases in maximal countermovement jump height. Design: Repeated-measures study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 14 recreational endurance athletes (11 men and 3 women) volunteered for the study. Interventions: A 12.5-minute foam roller protocol for the lower extremities and a fatiguing 30-minute treadmill run. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical average load rate, free moment, and maximal jump height before (PRE) and after (POST) the fatiguing treadmill run on separate experimental days: once where participants sat quietly prior to the fatiguing run (REST) and another where the foam roller protocol was performed prior to the run (ROLL). Results: A 2-way multiple analysis of variance found no significant differences in vertical average load rate, free moment, and jump height between PRE/POST times in both REST/ROLL conditions. Conclusions: The authors concluded that recreational endurance athletes maintain running mechanics and jump performance after a fatiguing run regardless of prerun roller massage and may not rely on prerun roller massage as a form of injury prevention.

Hunter, Garcia, Ranadive, Shim, and Miller are with the Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Shim and Miller are also with the Neuroscience & Cognitive Science Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Shim is also with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.

Hunter (jghunter@umd.edu) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material 1 (PDF 1 MB)
    • Supplementary Material 2 (PDF 432 KB)
    • Supplementary Material 3 (PDF 99 KB)
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Scheerder J, Vos S. Social stratification in adults’ sports participation from a time-trend perspective Results from a 40-year household study. Eur J Sport Soc. 2011;8(1–2):3144. doi:10.1080/16138171.2011.11687868

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Running USA. Running USA Releases 2019 U.S. Running Trends Report. 2019. https://runningusa.org/RUSA/News/2019/Running_USA_Releases_2019_U.S._Running_Trends_Report.aspx. Accessed March 24, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Buist I, Bredeweg SW, Lemmink KAPM, et al. Predictors of running-related injuries in novice runners enrolled in a systematic training program: a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(2):273280. PubMed ID: 19966104 doi:10.1177/0363546509347985

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Hespanhol Junior LC, Costa LOP, Carvalho ACA, Lopes AD. A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2012;16(1):4653. PubMed ID: 22441228 doi:10.1590/S1413-35552012000100009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Malisoux L, Nielsen RO, Urhausen A, Theisen D. A step towards understanding the mechanisms of running-related injuries. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(5):523528. PubMed ID: 25174773 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Messier SP, Martin DF, Mihalko SL, et al. A 2-year prospective cohort study of overuse running injuries: the runners and injury longitudinal study (TRAILS). Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(9):22112221. PubMed ID: 29791183 doi:10.1177/0363546518773755

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Murr S, Pierce B. How aging impacts runners’ goals of lifelong running. Phys Act Heal. 2019;3(1):71. doi:10.5334/paah.42

  • 8.

    Williams PT. Effects of running and walking on osteoarthritis and hip replacement risk. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2013;45(7):12921297. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182885f26

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Williams PT. Relationship of running intensity to hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(10):17401748. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817b8ed1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Willy RW, Davis IS. The effect of a hip-strengthening program on mechanics during running and during a single-leg squat. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 2011;41(9):625632. doi:10.2519/jospt.2011.3470

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Earl JE, Hoch AZ. A proximal strengthening program improves pain, function, and biomechanics in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(1):154163. PubMed ID: 20929936 doi:10.1177/0363546510379967

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Chan ZYS, Zhang JH, Au IPH, et al. Gait retraining for the reduction of injury occurrence in novice distance runners: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(2):388395. PubMed ID: 29065279 doi:10.1177/0363546517736277

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Crowell HP, Davis IS. Gait retraining to reduce lower extremity loading in runners. Clin Biomech. 2011;26(1):7883. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Creaby MW, Franettovich-Smith MM. Retraining running gait to reduce tibial loads with clinician or accelerometry guided feedback. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(4):288292. PubMed ID: 26026858 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.05.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Cheatham SW, Stull KR, Ambler-Wright T. Roller massage: survey of physical therapy professionals and a commentary on clinical standards-Part II. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2018;13(5):920930. PubMed ID: 30276024 doi:10.26603/ijspt20180920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Behara B, Jacobson BH. Acute effects of deep tissue foam rolling and dynamic stretching on muscular strength, power, and flexibility in division I linemen. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;31(4):888892. www.nsca.com. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001051

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Peacock CA, Krein DD, Silver TA, Sanders GJ, von Carlowitz KPA. An acute bout of self-myofascial release in the form of foam rolling improves performance testing. Int J Exerc Sci. 2014;7(3):202211. PubMed ID: 27182404

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Fleckenstein J, Wilke J, Vogt L, Banzer W. Preventive and regenerative foam rolling are equally effective in reducing fatigue-related impairments of muscle function following exercise. J Sport Sci Med. 2017;16(4):474479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Skurvydas A, Dudoniene V, Kalvénas A, Zuoza A. Skeletal muscle fatigue in long-distance runners, sprinters and untrained men after repeated drop jumps performed at maximal intensity. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2002;12(1):3439. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.120107.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tosovic D, Than C, Brown JMM. The effects of accumulated muscle fatigue on the mechanomyographic waveform : implications for injury prediction. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(8):14851494. PubMed ID: 27260367 doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3398-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Clansey AC, Hanlon M, Wallace ES, Nevill A, Lake MJ. Influence of tibial shock feedback training on impact loading and running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(5):973981. PubMed ID: 24121245 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000182

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Paquette MR, Melcher DA. Impact of a long run on injury-related biomechanics with relation to weekly mileage in trained male runners. J Appl Biomech. 2017;33(3):216221. PubMed ID: 27992250 doi:10.1123/jab.2016-0170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Milner CE, Davis IS, Hamill J. Free moment as a predictor of tibial stress fracture in distance runners. J Biomech. 2006;39(15):28192825. PubMed ID: 16289078 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.09.022

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Davis IS, Bowser BJ, Mullineaux DR. Greater vertical impact loading in female runners with medically diagnosed injuries: a prospective investigation. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(14):887892. PubMed ID: 26644428 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094579

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Maas E, De Bie J, Vanfleteren R, Hoogkamer W, Vanwanseele B. Novice runners show greater changes in kinematics with fatigue compared with competitive runners. Sport Biomech. 2018;17(3):350360. doi:10.1080/14763141.2017.1347193

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Stovern O, Henning C, Porcari JP, et al. The effect of training with a foam roller on ankle and knee range of motion, hamstring flexibility, agility, and vertical jump height. Int J Res Exerc Phys. 2019;15(1):3949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Cooper CN, Dabbs NC, Davis J, Sauls NM. Effects of lower-body muscular fatigue on vertical jump and balance performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(10):29032910. PubMed ID: 30273290 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002882.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    McLean BD, Coutts AJ, Kelly V, McGuigan MR, Cormack SJ. Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(3):367383. PubMed ID: 20861526 doi:10.1123/ijspp.5.3.367

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Riebe D, Franklin BA, Thompson PD, et al. Updating ACSM’s recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):24732479. PubMed ID: 26473759 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000664

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Clansey AC, Lake MJ, Wallace ES, Feehally T, Hanlon M. Can trained runners effectively attenuate impact acceleration during repeated high-intensity running bouts? J Appl Biomech. 2016;32(3):261268. PubMed ID: 26695109 doi:10.1123/jab.2015-0125

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mizrahi J, Verbitsky O, Isakov E. Fatigue-related loading imbalance on the shank in running: a possible factor in stress fractures. Ann Biomed Eng. 2000;28(4):463469. PubMed ID: 10870903 doi:10.1114/1.284

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Hunter JG, Smith AMB, Sciarratta LM, Suydam S, Shim JK, Miller RH. Standardized lab shoes do not decrease loading rate variability in recreational runners. J Appl Biomech. 2020;36(5):340344. doi:10.1123/jab.2019-0337

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Borg G. Perceived exertion. In: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.; 1974:131.

  • 34.

    Wasserman K. Determinants and detection of anaerobic threshold and consequences of exercise above it. Circulation. 1987;76(6, pt 2):VI2939. PubMed ID: 3315297

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Macdonald GZ, Button DC, Drinkwater EJ, Behm DG. Foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense bout of physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(1):131142. PubMed ID: 24343353 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a123db

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Krupenevich RL, Pruziner AL, Miller RH. Knee joint loading during single-leg forward hopping. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(2):327332. PubMed ID: 27669448 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001098

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Blackmore T, Willy RW, Creaby MW. The high frequency component of the vertical ground reaction force is a valid surrogate measure of the impact peak. J Biomech. 2016;49(3):479483. PubMed ID: 26783094 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.12.019

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. 2017. https://www.R-project.org/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Simon J, Young JL, Blood DK, Segal KR, Case RB, Gutin B. Plasma lactate and ventilation thresholds in trained and untrained cyclists. J Appl Physiol. 1986;60(3):777781. PubMed ID: 3957830 doi:10.1152/jappl.1986.60.3.777

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Slawinski JS, Billat VL. Changes in internal mechanical cost during overground running to exhaustion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):11801186. PubMed ID: 16015136 doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000170101.99529.a3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Dierks TA, Davis IS, Hamill J. The effects of running in an exerted state on lower extremity kinematics and joint timing. J Biomech. 2010;43(15):29932998. PubMed ID: 20663506 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Cen X, Xu D, Baker JS, Gu Y. Association of arch stiffness with plantar impulse distribution during walking, running, and gait termination. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2090. doi:10.3390/ijerph17062090

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Abt JP, Sell TC, Chu Y, Lovalekar M, Burdett RG, Lephart SM. Running kinematics and shock absorption do not change after brief exhaustive running. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(6):14791485. PubMed ID: 21386724 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddfcf8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Clansey AC, Hanlon M, Wallace ES, Lake MJ. Effects of fatigue on running mechanics associated with tibial stress fracture risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(10):19171923. PubMed ID: 22525776 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318259480d

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Enoka RM, Duchateau J. Translating fatigue to human performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(11):22282238. PubMed ID: 27015386 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000929

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Williams KR, Cavanagh PR. Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance. J Appl Physiol. 1987;63(3):12361245. PubMed ID: 3654469 doi:10.1152/jappl.1987.63.3.1236

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Kyröläinen H, Komi PV, Belli A. Changes in muscle activity patterns and kinetics with increasing running speed. J Strength Cond Res. 1999;13(4):400406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Austin C, Hokanson J, McGinnis P, Patrick S. The Relationship between running power and running economy in well-trained distance runners. Sports. 2018;6(4):142. doi:10.3390/sports6040142

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Rojas-Valverde D, Sánchez-Ureña B, Pino-Ortega J, et al. External workload indicators of muscle and kidney mechanical injury in endurance trail running. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(20):3909. doi:10.3390/ijerph16203909

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Noakes TD, Carter JW. The response of plasma biochemical parameters to a 56-km race in novice and experienced ultra-marathon runners. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1982;49(2):179186. PubMed ID: 6889495 doi:10.1007/BF02334066

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Zhang H, Liu H, Lin Q, Zhang G, Mason DC. Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):19. doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1314-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 3601 2884 310
Full Text Views 35 17 5
PDF Downloads 39 16 1