Reliability of Y Balance Test in Runners With Intellectual Disability

Click name to view affiliation

Ghada Jouira Research Laboratory Education, Motricité, Sport et Santé (EM2S) LR19JS01, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia, Tunisia

Search for other papers by Ghada Jouira in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1311-7497 *
,
Haithem Rebai Research Laboratory Education, Motricité, Sport et Santé (EM2S) LR19JS01, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia, Tunisia

Search for other papers by Haithem Rebai in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Sonia Sahli Research Laboratory Education, Motricité, Sport et Santé (EM2S) LR19JS01, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia, Tunisia

Search for other papers by Sonia Sahli in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Context: The Y Balance Test (YBT) is a simple, reliable, cost-effective screening test. It is used to evaluate dynamic balance as well as to determine the potential risk of injury of the lower limbs. The reliability of YBT has been widely reported in the general population. However, there are no studies evaluating the reliability of YBT use in athletes with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the study was to examine the reliability of the YBT in runners with ID. Design: A reliability study. Methods: Twelve male runners (short-distance running) with ID (age 25.1 [4.50] y, height 169.1 [4.2] cm, weight 69.5 [5.5] kg, and intelligence quotient 60.8 [2.4]). The YBT was used to measure participants’ dynamic balance in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach directions. The analysis used the normalized values to the relative length of the lower limbs. A 1-way (trial) repeated-measures (5) analysis of variance for each direction was used. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change were computed to assess the reliability of the YBT between trials. Results: After 6 practice trials, 3 out of 5 consecutive ones achieved results stabilization for all directions and both legs (P < .05). The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change values for all trials ranged from .76 to .87, 5% to <7%, and 11% to <15%, respectively. Conclusion: The YBT is a highly reliable tool to measure the dynamic balance of male runners with ID. Therefore, it is recommended to perform 6 practice trials and 3 measurements in these runners.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Holder M. The Special Olympics healthy athletes experience. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2015;14(3):165170. PubMed ID: 25968847 doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Harada CM, Siperstein GN. The sport experience of athletes with intellectual disabilities: a national survey of Special Olympics athletes and their families. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2009;26(1):6885. PubMed ID: 19246774 doi:10.1123/apaq.26.1.68

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hespanhol LC Jr, Pillay JD, van Mechelen W, Verhagen E. Meta-analyses of the effects of habitual running on indices of health in physically inactive adults. Sports Med. 2015;45(10):14551468. PubMed ID: 26178328 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0359-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Chandan P, Dubon ME. Clinical considerations and resources for youth athletes with intellectual disability: a review with a focus on Special Olympics international. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep. 2019;7(2):116125. doi:10.1007/s40141-019-0209-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    McCormick D, Niebuhr V, Risser W. Injury and illness surveillance at local special Olympic games. Br J Sports Med. 1990;24(4):221224. PubMed ID: 2151423 doi:10.1136/bjsm.24.4.221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Galdieri JD, Sood A, Edinoff AN, Cornett EM, Kaye AD, Seidenberg PH. Descriptive epidemiology of orthopedic injury and illness during the special Olympics of Pennsylvania Summer Games from 2008 to 2017. Orthop Rev. 2022;14(4):35276. PubMed ID: 35769660 doi:10.52965/001c.35276

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ng KL. Perception of Special Olympics coaches on safety in their training of their Special Olympics athletes. 2009.

  • 8.

    Winter DA. Human balance and posture control during standing and walking. Gait Posture. 1995;3(4):193214. doi:10.1016/0966-6362(96)82849-9

  • 9.

    Gribble PA, Hertel J, Plisky P. Using the star excursion balance test to assess dynamic postural-control deficits and outcomes in lower extremity injury: a literature and systematic review. J Athl Train. 2012;47(3):339357. PubMed ID: 22892416 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.3.08

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Dellavia C, Pallavera A, Orlando F, Sforza C. Postural stability of athletes in Special Olympics. Percept Mot Skills. 2009;108(2):608622. PubMed ID: 19544966 doi:10.2466/pms.108.2.608-622

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    John FM, Bromham NR, Woodhouse JM, Candy TR. Spatial vision deficits in infants and children with Down syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(5):15661572. PubMed ID: 15111616 doi:10.1167/iovs.03-0951

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Hale L, Miller R, Barach A, Skinner M, Gray A. Motor control test responses to balance perturbations in adults with an intellectual disability. J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2009;34(1):8186. PubMed ID: 19234981 doi:10.1080/13668250802683810

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Zur O, Ronen A, Melzer I, Carmeli E. Vestibulo-ocular response and balance control in children and young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disability: a pilot study. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(6):19511957. PubMed ID: 23584174 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hrysomallis C. Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Med. 2007;37(6):547556. PubMed ID: 17503879 doi:10.2165/00007256-200737060-00007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Horak FB. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls? Age Ageing. 2006;35(suppl 2):ii7ii11. PubMed ID: 16926210 doi:10.1093/ageing/afl077

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Powden CJ, Dodds TK, Gabriel EH. The reliability of the star excursion balance test and lower quarter Y-balance test in healthy adults: a systematic review. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(5):683694. PubMed ID: 31598406 doi:10.26603/ijspt20190683

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    de Noronha M, França LC, Haupenthal A, Nunes G. Intrinsic predictive factors for ankle sprain in active university students: a prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(5):541547. PubMed ID: 22260485 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01434.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Plisky PJ, Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Kiesel KB, Underwood FB, Elkins B. The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2009;4(2):9299. PubMed ID: 21509114

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Downing SM. Reliability: on the reproducibility of assessment data. Med Educ. 2004;38(9):10061012. PubMed ID: 15327684 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01932.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Shaffer SW, Teyhen DS, Lorenson CL, et al. Y-balance test: a reliability study involving multiple raters. Mil Med. 2013;178(11):12641270. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00222

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Schwiertz G, Brueckner D, Schedler S, Kiss R, Muehlbauer T. Performance and reliability of the lower quarter Y balance test in healthy adolescents from grade 6 to 11. Gait Posture. 2019;67:142146. PubMed ID: 30336348 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.10.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Hertel J, Miller SJ, Denegar CR. Intratester and intertester reliability during the star excursion balance tests. J Sport Rehabil. 2000;9(2):104116. doi:10.1123/jsr.9.2.104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Robinson RH, Gribble PA. Support for a reduction in the number of trials needed for the star excursion balance test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(2):364370. PubMed ID: 18226664 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2007.08.139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Munro AG, Herrington LC. Between-session reliability of the star excursion balance test. Phys Ther Sport. 2010;11(4):128132. PubMed ID: 21055706 doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Linek P, Sikora D, Wolny T, Saulicz E. Reliability and number of trials of Y balance test in adolescent athletes. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017;31:7275. PubMed ID: 28365179 doi:10.1016/j.msksp.2017.03.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Beck TW. The importance of a priori sample size estimation in strength and conditioning research. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(8):23232337. PubMed ID: 23880657 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318278eea0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. NCS Pearson, Inc; 2008.

  • 28.

    Crnković I, Buzov P, Režan R, Racz A. Assessment of physical activity level in adults with intellectual disabilities-users of habilitation programs. Ann Physiother Clin. 2018;1(1).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Plisky P, Schwartkopf-Phifer K, Huebner B, Garner MB, Bullock G. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the y-balance test lower quarter: reliability, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2021;16(5):11901209. PubMed ID: 34631241 doi:10.26603/001c.27634

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Portney LG, Watkins MP. Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice. Vol 892. 2009.

  • 31.

    Thomas JR, Silverman SJ, Nelson JK. Research Methods in Physical Activity. 7th ed. Human Kinetics; 2015.

  • 32.

    Kropmans TJ, Dijkstra P, Stegenga B, Stewart R, De Bont L. Smallest detectable difference in outcome variables related to painful restriction of the temporomandibular joint. J Dent Res. 1999;78(3):784789. PubMed ID: 10096454 doi:10.1177/00220345990780031101

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Weir JP. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(1):231240. PubMed ID: 15705040 doi:10.1519/15184.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kinzey SJ, Armstrong CW. The reliability of the star-excursion test in assessing dynamic balance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27(5):356360. PubMed ID: 9580895 doi:10.2519/jospt.1998.27.5.356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Smith LJ, Creps JR, Bean R, Rodda B, Alsalaheen B. Performance and reliability of the Y-balance test™ in high school athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017;58(11):16711675. PubMed ID: 29111625 doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.17.07218-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Gribble PA, Kelly SE, Refshauge KM, Hiller CE. Interrater reliability of the star excursion balance test. J Athl Train. 2013;48(5):621626. PubMed ID: 24067151 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Neji Z, Attia A, Negra Y, et al. Lower quarter Y balance test: reliability and relation to anthropometric parameters. J Phys Educ Sport. 2020;20(5):26202627. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Bland JM, Altman D. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986;327(8476):307310. PubMed ID: 2868172 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90837-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Liaw L-J, Hsieh C-L, Lo S-K, Chen H-M, Lee S, Lin J-H. The relative and absolute reliability of two balance performance measures in chronic stroke patients. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(9):656661. PubMed ID: 17852318 doi:10.1080/09638280701400698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children & Youth Version: ICF-CY. World Health Organization; 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2177 1019 95
Full Text Views 103 82 2
PDF Downloads 58 26 4