The Relationship Between Vertical Ground Reaction Force, Loading Rate, and Sound Characteristics During a Single-Leg Landing

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context: Landing kinetic outcomes are associated with injury risk and may be persistently altered after anterior cruciate ligament injury or reconstruction. However, it is challenging to assess kinetics clinically. The relationship between sound characteristics and kinetics during a limited number of functional tasks has been supported as a potential clinical alternative. Objective: To assess the relationship between kinetics and sound characteristics during a single-leg landing task. Design: Observational Setting: Laboratory. Participants: There was total of 26 healthy participants (15 males/11 females, age = 24.8 [3.6] y, height = 176.0 [9.1] cm, mass = 74.9 [14.4] kg, Tegner Activity Scale = 6.1 [1.1]). Intervention: Participants completed single-leg landings onto a force plate while audio characteristics were recorded. Main Outcome Measures: Peak vertical ground reaction force, linear loading rate, instantaneous loading rate, peak sound magnitude, sound frequency were measured. Means and SDs were calculated for each participant’s individual limbs. Spearman rho correlations were used to assess the relationships between audio characteristics and kinetic outcomes. Results: Peak sound magnitude was positively correlated with normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (ρ = .486, P = .001); linear loading rate (ρ = .491, P = .001); and instantaneous loading rate (ρ = .298, P = .03). Sound frequency was negatively correlated with instantaneous loading rate (ρ = −.444, P = .001). Conclusions: Peak sound magnitude may be more helpful in providing feedback about an individual’s normalized vertical ground reaction force and linear loading rate, and sound frequency may be more helpful in providing feedback about instantaneous loading rate. Further refinement in sound measurement techniques may be required before these findings can be applied in a clinical population.

Lisee, Birchmeier, Davis, and Kuenze are with the Department of Kinesiology, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Yan, Geers, O’Hagan, and Kuenze are with the Division of Sports Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Lisee (liseecar@msu.edu) is corresponding author.
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