Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $74.00

1 year subscription

USD  $99.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $141.00

2 year subscription

USD  $185.00

Context: Strength assessment is essential to prescribe exercise in sports and rehabilitation. Low-cost valid equipment may allow continuous monitoring of training. Objective: To examine the validity of a very low-cost hanging scale by comparing differences in the measures of peak force to a laboratory grade load cell during shoulder abduction, flexion, extension, and internal and external rotations. Design: Analytical study. Participants: Thirty-two healthy subjects (18 women, age 26 [10] y, height 172 [8] cm, mass 69 [13] kg, body mass index 23 [4] kg/m2). Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variable was the maximal peak force (in kilogram-force). The independent variable was the instrument (laboratory grade load cell and hanging scale). Results: No differences were observed while comparing the results. The intraclass correlation coefficients1,1 ranged from .96 to .99, showing excellent results. The Cronbach alpha test also returned >.99 for all comparisons. The SEM ranged from 0.02 to 0.04 kgf, with an averaged SD from 0.24 to 0.38 kgf. The correlation was classified as high for all tested movements (r > .99; P < .001), with excellent adjusted coefficients of determination (.96 < r2 < .99). Bland–Altman results showed high levels of agreement with bias ranging from 0.27 to 0.48. Conclusions: Hanging scale provides valid measures of isometric strength with similar output measures as laboratory grade load cell.

The authors are with the Musculoskeletal Research Group—NIME, Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil.

Barbosa (alexwbarbosa@hotmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    McLaine SJ, Ginn KA, Fell JW, Bird ML. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(1):35–39. PubMed ID: 28844605 doi:

  • 2.

    Johansson FR, Skillgate E, Lapauw ML, et al. Measuring eccentric strength of the shoulder external rotators using a handheld dynamometer: reliability and validity. J Athl Train. 2015;50(7):719–725. PubMed ID: 25974381 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Pinedo-Villanueva R, Westbury LD, Syddall HE, et al. Health care costs associated with muscle weakness: a UK population-based estimate. Calcif Tissue Int. 2019;104(2):137–144. PubMed ID: 30244338 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Steffl M, Sima J, Shiells K, Holmerova I. The increase in health care costs associated with muscle weakness in older people without long-term illnesses in the Czech Republic: results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Clin Interv Aging. 2017;12:2003–2007. PubMed ID: 29225462 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Toonstra J, Mattacola CG. Test-retest reliability and validity of isometric knee-flexion and -extension measurement using 3 methods of assessing muscle strength. J Sport Rehabil. 2013;22(1). doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Buckner SL, Jenkins NDM, Costa PB, Ryan ED, Herda TJ, Cramer JT. Comparing passive angle–torque curves recorded simultaneously with a load cell versus an isokinetic dynamometer during dorsiflexion stretch tolerance assessments. Med Eng Phys. 2015;37(5):494–498. PubMed ID: 25782330 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hanafee JE, Radcliffe SV. Effect of high pressure on a strain gauge load cell. Rev Sci Instrum. 1967;38(3):328–331. doi:

  • 8.

    Jamovi [computer software]. Version 0.9. The Jamovi Project; 2019. https://www.jamovi.org

  • 9.

    James LP, Roberts LA, Haff GG, Kelly VG, Beckman EM. Validity and reliability of a portable isometric mid-thigh clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(5):1378–1386. PubMed ID: 28415068 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Peltonen H, Walker S, Lähitie A, Häkkinen K, Avela J. Isometric parameters in the monitoring of maximal strength, power, and hypertrophic resistance-training. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018;43(2):145–153. PubMed ID: 29017022 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Peltonen H. Isometric force-time parameters in monitoring of strength training: with special reference to acute responses to different loading resistances. Stud Sport Phys Educ Health. 2017;264:96–97. https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/56014. Accessed May 21, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 264 264 65
Full Text Views 5 4 3
PDF Downloads 4 4 1