Injuries in Collegiate Ladies Gaelic Footballers: A 2-Season Prospective Cohort Study

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $192.00

Context: Although Ladies Gaelic football is one of the most popular female sports in Ireland, just 2 previous injury surveillance studies have been completed, and both were retrospective in nature. Objective: To prospectively examine the injury incidence and injury profile in collegiate Ladies Gaelic football over 2 seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: College. Patients (or Other Participants): Adult Ladies Gaelic footballers from one collegiate institution (season 1: n = 50, season 2: n = 82). Intervention(s): All time-loss injuries that occurred were recorded by certified athletic therapists and student-athletic therapists and trainers over 2 seasons. Main Outcome Measures: A standardized injury report form was used to record the injury onset, mechanism, location, nature, and outcome. Injury incidence proportion, repeat incidence proportion and total, match and training injury rates, and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The frequencies and proportions were also calculated. Results: The match and training injury rates were 42.48 and 7.93 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. A low repeat incidence proportion per season was noted (11.7% and 0.0%). The injuries were predominantly acute (74.68%) and noncontact (66.25%), with hamstring injuries (21.52%) and strains (36.71%) the most frequent location and nature of injuries noted. Strains (104.92 d absent per 1000 h) and knee injuries (106.46 d absent per 1000 h) led to the greatest injury burden. Further investigations were not frequently required, with an X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging ordered in 8.00% and 6.67% of the cases, respectively. Surgery was completed following one injury. Conclusions: This is the first study to provide prospective injury data on Ladies Gaelic football. Priority needs to be given to preventing hamstring and knee injuries due to their occurrence and negative impact on player availability to play. Collegiate Ladies Gaelic football teams should be encouraged to implement an injury-prevention warm-up, such as the GAA15+, at training and matches.

The authors are with the Centre for Injury Prevention and Performance, Athletic Therapy and Training, School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

O’Connor (siobhan.oconnor@dcu.ie) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Gaelic Athletic Association. Ladies Gaelic football. 2016. https://www.gaa.ie/my-gaa/getting-involved/ladies-gaelic-football. Accessed June 11, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    O’Connor S, McCaffrey N, Whyte EF, Moran KA. Epidemiology of injury in male collegiate Gaelic footballers in one season. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(10):11361142. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Brown J, Papadopoulos C, Pritchett R. Examination of injury in female Gaelic football. Int J Exerc Sci. 2013;6(2):98105.

  • 4.

    Crowley J, Jordan J, Falvey E. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care. Ir Med J. 2011;104(9):268270. PubMed ID: 22132594

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    O’Connor S, McCaffrey N, Whyte EF, Moran KA. Epidemiology of injury in male adolescent Gaelic games. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(5):384388. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Ladies Gaelic Football Association. Third level competitions. 2012. https://ladiesgaelic.ie/lgfa-hub/higher-education-colleges/competitions/. Accessed June 11, 2019.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Finch C. A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(1):39. doi:

  • 8.

    Donaldson A, Finch CF. Applying implementation science to sports injury prevention. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(8):473475. PubMed ID: 23501832 doi:

  • 9.

    Murphy JC, O’Malley E, Gissane C, Blake C. Incidence of injury in Gaelic football: a 4-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(9):21132120. PubMed ID: 22879401 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Blake C, O’Malley E, Gissane C, Murphy JC. Epidemiology of injuries in hurling: a prospective study 2007–2011. BMJ Open. 2014;4(6):e005059. PubMed ID: 24948748 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Newell M, Grant S, Henry A, Newell J. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers. Ir Med J. 2006;99(9):269271. PubMed ID: 17144235

  • 12.

    Fuller CW, Molloy MG, Bagate C, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(5):328331. PubMed ID: 17452684 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Knowles SB, Marshall SW, Guskiewicz KM. Issues in estimating risks and rates in sports injury research. J Athl Train. 2006;41(2):207215. PubMed ID: 16791309

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Brooks JH, Fuller CW. The influence of methodological issues on the results and conclusions from epidemiological studies of sports injuries. Sports Med. 2006;36(6):459472. PubMed ID: 16737340 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kerr ZY, Marshall SW, Dompier TP, Corlette J, Klossner DA, Gilchrist J. College sports-related injuries—United States, 2009–10 through 2013–14 academic years. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(48):13301336. PubMed ID: 26655724 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Granito VJ Jr. Psychological response to athletic injury: gender differences. J Sport Behav. 2002;25(3):243.

  • 17.

    Roe M, Murphy JC, Gissane C, Blake C. Hamstring injuries in elite Gaelic football: an 8-year investigation to identify injury rates, time-loss patterns and players at increased risk. Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52(15):982988. PubMed ID: 27797729 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Cross KM, Gurka KK, Saliba S, Conaway M, Hertel J. Comparison of hamstring strain injury rates between male and female intercollegiate soccer athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(4):742748. PubMed ID: 23408592 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K, et al. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a2469. PubMed ID: 19066253 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    del Ama Espinosa G, Pöyhönen T, Aramendi JF, Samaniego JC, Emparanza JI, Kyröläinen H. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2015;7(1):125134. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    O’Malley E, Murphy JC, McCarthy Persson U, Gissane C, Blake C. The effects of the Gaelic athletic association 15 training program on neuromuscular outcomes in Gaelic football and hurling players: a randomized cluster trial. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(8):21192130. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ulster GAA and Sports Institute Northern Ireland. The Activate GAA warm-up. 2019. https://ulster.gaa.ie/pals/resources/activate-warm-up/. Accessed February 27, 2020.

    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    DiStefano LJ, Dann CL, Chang CJ, et al. The first decade of web-based sports injury surveillance: descriptive epidemiology of injuries in US High School Girls’ Soccer (2005–2006 through 2013–2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Women’s Soccer (2004–2005 through 2013–2014). J Athl Train. 2018;53(9):880892. PubMed ID: 30372637 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Fortington LV, Donaldson A, Finch CF. Self-reported worst injuries in women’s Australian football identify lower limb injuries as a prevention priority. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2016;2(1):e000112. PubMed ID: 27900178 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):311319. PubMed ID: 17710181

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Preiss-Farzanegan SJ, Chapman B, Wong TM, Wu J, Bazarian JJ. The relationship between gender and postconcussion symptoms after sport-related mild traumatic brain injury. PM R. 2009;1(3):245253. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Berz K, Divine J, Foss KB, Heyl R, Ford KR, Myer GD. Sex-specific differences in the severity of symptoms and recovery rate following sports-related concussion in young athletes. Phys Sportsmed. 2013;41(2):5863. PubMed ID: 23703518 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Leahy R, Farrington S, Whyte E, O’Connor S. Concussion reporting, knowledge and attitudes in Irish amateur Gaelic games athletes. Phys Ther Sport. 2019. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Wilson F, Caffrey S, King E, Casey K, Gissane C. A 6-month prospective study of injury in Gaelic football. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(5):317321. PubMed ID: 17138631 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ostenberg A, Roos H. Injury risk factors in female European football. A prospective study of 123 players during one season. Scan J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(5):279285. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Anderson T, Wasserman EB, Shultz SJ. Anterior cruciate ligament injury risk by season period and competition segment: an analysis of National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance data. J Athl Train. 2019;54(7):787795. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Schlingermann BE, Lodge CA, Gissane C, Rankin PM. Effects of the Gaelic Athletic Association 15 on lower extremity injury incidence and neuromuscular functional outcomes in collegiate Gaelic games. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(7):19932001. PubMed ID: 28817505 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 422 422 66
Full Text Views 1 1 0
PDF Downloads 3 3 1