Relationship Between Hip Frontal Dynamic Joint Stiffness and Frontal and Transverse Plane Hip Kinematics During Gait: Sex Differences

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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Context: Previous studies have reported that the incidence of patellofemoral pain in women is 2.2 times higher than that in men. Lower hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness in women may be related to the magnitude of hip adduction and internal rotation associated with patellofemoral pain. Objective: To identify sex differences in hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness and examine the relationship between hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness and hip adduction and internal rotation during gait. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University campus. Participants: A total of 80 healthy volunteers (40 women and 40 men) participated in this study. Intervention(s): Kinematic and kinetic data during gait were collected using a motion capture system and force plates. Main Outcome Measures: Hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness, hip adduction, and hip internal rotation were calculated during gait. Results: Women demonstrated lower hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness than men during gait (P < .01). They also displayed decreased hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness associated with increased hip adduction (r = −.85, P < .001) and internal rotation (r = −.48, P < .001). Conversely, in men, decreased hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness was associated with increased hip adduction (r = −.74, P < .001) but not internal rotation (r = .17, P = .28). Conclusions: Sex differences between hip frontal dynamic joint stiffness and hip internal rotation during gait may contribute to the increased incidence of patellofemoral pain in women.

Takano is with the Major in Medical Engineering and Technology, Graduate School of Medical Technology and Health Welfare Science, Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima, Japan. Iwamoto is with the Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Ozawa and Kito are with the Faculty of General Rehabilitation, Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Kito (n-kito@hirokoku-u.ac.jp) is corresponding author.
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