Association Between Lower Trapezius Isometric Strength and Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter Performance in College Volleyball Players

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $77.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $103.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $147.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $196.00

Context: Knowing the possible association between the isometric strength of the shoulder rotators, scapular muscles, and the Y-balance test upper quarter (YBT-UQ) performance could help identify which indicators of shoulder stability should be considered in this field test. This study aimed to determine whether the isometric strength of the shoulder rotators and scapular muscles is associated with the YBT-UQ performance of the dominant upper limb in amateur volleyball players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A convenience sample of 22 male and 18 female volleyball players (≥12 h of training/week) between 18 and 26 years of age. The isometric strength of the middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, internal, and external rotator muscles was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Participants performed the YBT-UQ in the superolateral, medial, and inferolateral directions. The absolute isometric peak force (in Newtons) was normalized to body weight (in Newtons per kilogram) for each muscle test. For each YBT-UQ direction, the distance (in centimeters) was normalized for upper limb length (in percentage). A backward multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Results: The analysis revealed that the isometric strength of the lower trapezius (β = 26.82; 95% confidence interval, 21.24–32.40) is associated with inferolateral YBT-UQ performance (adjusted R 2 = .706; P < .001). This factor explains 70% of the variability of the YBT-UQ in the inferolateral direction. Conclusions: Lower trapezius isometric strength is associated with inferolateral YBT-UQ performance of the dominant upper limb in amateur volleyball players. These findings could help in the development of more specific training programs and rehabilitation goals according to the performance of the athletes in the test.

Mendez-Rebolledo and Quiroz-Aldea are with the Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile. Cools is with the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Ramirez-Campillo is with the Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile; and the Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile. Habechian is with the Departamento de Kinesiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile.

Habechian (fernanda.aph@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Wilk K, MacRina L, Fleisig G, et al. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(2):329335. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Wilk K, Macrina L, Fleisig G, et al. Deficits in glenohumeral passive range of motion increase risk of shoulder injury in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(10):23792385. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Asker M, Brooke HL, Waldén M, et al. Risk factors for, and prevention of, shoulder injuries in overhead sports: a systematic review with best-evidence synthesis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(20):13121319. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Forthomme B, Wieczorek V, Frisch A, Crielaard JM, Croisier JL. Shoulder pain among high-level volleyball players and preseason features. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(10):18521860. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Borms D, Cools A. Upper-extremity functional performance tests: reference values for overhead athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2018;39(6):433441. doi:

  • 6.

    De Mey K, Danneels L, Cagnie B, et al. Shoulder muscle activation levels during four closed kinetic chain exercises with and without redcord slings. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(6):16261635. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Mendez-Rebolledo G, Morales-Verdugo J, Orozco-Chavez I, Habechian FAP, Padilla EL, de la Rosa FJB. Optimal activation ratio of the scapular muscles in closed kinetic chain shoulder exercises: a systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2021;34(1):316. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Chang C-C, Chang C-M, Shih Y-F. Kinetic chain exercise intervention improved spiking consistency and kinematics in volleyball players with scapular dyskinesis [published online ahead of print December 9, 2020]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Paraskevopoulos E, Simeonidis T, Tsolakis C, Koulouvaris P, Papandreou M. The adjunctive benefits of mirror cross education on kinetic chain exercise approach in volleyball athletes with scapular dyskinesis [published online ahead of print February 22, 2021]. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Westrick RB. Original research exploration of the Y balance test for assessment of upper quarter closed kinetic. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012;7(2):139147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Plisky PJ, Kiesel KB. Upper quarter Y balance test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):30433048. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Skejø SD, Møller M, Bencke J, Sørensen H. Shoulder kinematics and kinetics of team handball throwing: a scoping review. Hum Mov Sci. 2019;64:203212. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Huxel Bliven KC, Anderson BE. Core stability training for injury prevention. Sports Health. 2013;5(6):514522. doi:

  • 14.

    Borms D, Maenhout A, Cools AM. Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes. J Athl Train. 2016;51(10):789796. doi:

  • 15.

    Myers H, Poletti M, Butler RJ. Functional performance on the upper quarter Y-balance test differs between high school wrestlers and baseball players. J Sport Rehabil. 2017;26(3):253259. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Salo TD, Chaconas E. Y-balance test scores in recreational weightlifters: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(2):199205.

  • 17.

    Schwiertz G, Brueckner D, Schedler S, Kiss R, Muehlbauer T. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the upper quarter Y-balance test in healthy adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(6):927934. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kanik ZH, Pala OO, Gunaydin G, et al. Relationship between scapular muscle and core endurance in healthy subjects. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30(4):811817. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):e2961627. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hannah DC, Scibek JS, Carcia CR. Strength profiles in healthy individuals with and without scapula dyskinesis. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(3):390401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Michener LA, Boardman ND, Pidcoe PE, Frith AM. Scapular muscle tests in subjects with shoulder pain and functional loss: reliability and construct validity. Phys Ther. 2005;85(11):11281138. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Riemann BL, Davies GJ, Ludwig L, Gardenhour H. Hand-held dynamometer testing of the internal and external rotator musculature based on selected positions to establish normative data and unilateral ratios. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19(8):11751183. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Celik D, Dirican A, Baltaci G. Intrarater reliability of assessing strength of the shoulder and scapular muscles. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21(1):15. doi:

  • 24.

    Ijspeert J, Kerstens HCJW, Janssen RMJ, Geurts ACH, Van Alfen N, Groothuis JT. Validity and reliability of serratus anterior hand held dynamometry. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019;20(1):18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15(2):155163. doi:

  • 26.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Routledge Academic; 1988.

  • 27.

    Williamson JD, Lawson BL, Sigley D, Nasypany A, Baker RT. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for limb length measurement and trial error assessment of the upper quarter Y-balance test in healthy adults. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(5):707714. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Murphy AJ, Wilson GJ. Poor correlations between isometric tests and dynamic performance: relationship to muscle activation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;73(3–4):353357. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Cools AMJ, Vanderstukken F, Vereecken F, et al. Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotator cuff strength testing using a hand-held dynamometer: reference values for overhead athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24(12):38383847. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Vleeming A, Schuenke MD, Danneels L, Willard FH. The functional coupling of the deep abdominal and paraspinal muscles: the effects of simulated paraspinal muscle contraction on force transfer to the middle and posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. J Anat. 2014;225(4):447462. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Winter EM, Eston RG, Lamb KL. Statistical analyses in the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(10):761775. doi:

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 453 453 111
Full Text Views 5 5 0
PDF Downloads 5 5 0