The Sleep Parameters of Paralympic Athletes: Characteristics and Assessment Instruments

in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Isadora GradeUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Henrique AndradeUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Renato GuerreiroUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Eduardo StielerUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Academia Paralímpica Brasileira, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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Flavia R. da SilvaUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Hesojy G.V. da SilvaAcademia Paralímpica Brasileira, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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Roberto VitalAcademia Paralímpica Brasileira, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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Renan A. ResendeUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Dawit A.P. GonçalvesUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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André G. AndradeUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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Marco T. de MelloUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Academia Paralímpica Brasileira, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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Andressa SilvaUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Centro de Referência Paralimpíco Brasileiro, Centro de Treinamento Esportivo (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
Academia Paralímpica Brasileira, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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Context: Sleep serves many important functions for athletes, particularly in the processes of learning, memory, recovery, and cognition. Objectives: Define the sleep parameters of Paralympic athletes and identify the instruments used to assess and monitor sleep Paralympic athletes. Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was carried out based on the PRISMA guidelines. The survey was conducted in April 2020, the searches were carried out again in September 2021 to check whether there were new scientific publications in the area of sleep and Paralympic sport, searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Virtual Health Library (BIREME), and SciELO. This systematic review has included studies that investigated at least one of the following sleep parameters: total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype; the participants were comprised of athletes with disabilities. Studies published at any time in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were included. Evidence Synthesis: Data extraction and study selection were performed by 2 researchers independently, and a third author was consulted as necessary. The search returned a total of 407 studies. Following the screening based on exclusion and inclusion criteria, a total of 13 studies were considered. Paralympic athletes have a low amount (7.06 h) of sleep with poor quality and sleep latency (28.05 min), and 57.2% have daytime sleepiness, with the majority belonging to the indifferent chronotype (53, 5%). Moreover, 11 studies assess sleep using subjective instruments (questionnaires), and 2 studies used an objective instrument (actigraphy). Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common among Paralympic athletes, poor sleep quality and quantity, and high rates of daytime sleepiness. Subjective methods are most commonly used to assess sleep.

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