The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between learning trials and achievement for four volleyball skills—set, forearm pass, serve, and spike. The subjects studied totaled 58 male and female students in two university beginning-volleyball classes. Twenty-two class periods were videotaped, and the tapes were analyzed to determine all correct and incorrect skill trials made by each student each day for the four skills studied. The data analysis included learning trials, learning curves, and achievement. The most consistent result of the statistical analyses was the importance of the total correct trials in determining achievement. For the forearm pass, the serve, and the spike, outside-of-class participation increased the number of total correct trials. The beginning skill level, represented by the pretest score, also influenced achievement. Average trials per day per student were very low, and low-skilled students did not get as many correct or total trials as high-skilled students. This study supports previous studies that suggest that discrete trials might be a more appropriate measure of student achievement than ALT-PE or time-on-task.
Marilyn Buck is currently with the School of Physical Education, UG 150–1, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306. Joyce M. Harrison is with the Department of Physical Education—Sports, 221B Richards Building, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. G. Rex Bryce is with the Department of Statistics at BYU.