The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a component-specific instruction (CSI) intervention to enhance overarm throw development in preschool children. The study also examined the sequence of components within the intervention, a force production sequence (FPS) versus a forward-chaining sequence (FCS). During daily inspection of the data, investigators noted changes in efficiency levels of nontargeted components. Therefore, a third research question emerged regarding the ancillary effects of CSI on efficiency levels of nontargeted components. For all participants, intervention was required on two or more of the following: step, rotation/backswing, elbow/backswing, forearm/forward, and rotation forward. CSI was found to be effective for improving the efficiency of the targeted component as well as overall throwing efficiency. Ancillary effects occurred repeatedly across nontargeted components during all but one condition of CSI. During follow-up, the degree to which efficiency levels were maintained varied from child to child.
Judith L. Oslin is with the School of Exercise, Leisure, and Sport at Kent State University, 263F Memorial Gym Annex, Kent, OH 44224. Sandra Stroot and Daryl Siedentop are with the School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation at The Ohio State University, Pomerene Hall, 1760 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210.