Student Perceptions of Instructional Choices in Middle School Physical Education

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
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Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.


Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.


Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.


The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

Agbuga is with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. Xiang, McBride, and Su are with the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Address author correspondence to Bulent Agbuga at
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