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Purpose: We conducted a retroactive analysis of teacher and student data from two randomized group trials and one well-controlled quasi-experimental group trial focused on improving pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and student performance. Method: Seven teachers and 32 classes were investigated. PCK was measured using four variables: task selection, representation, adaption, and an aggregate variable called total PCK. Student data are reported as percentages of correct performance. Data are reported descriptively using effect sizes (ES). Results: The studies generated 35 ES across four teachers and one student performance variable. All ES exceeded the U.S. Department of Education’s What Works Clearinghouse .25 standard deviation criterion for a “substantively important” effect and all ES exceeded Cohen’s criteria of .8 for a large effect. Discussion: Findings from this study support a focus on professional development of teachers’ content knowledge as an evidenced-based practice for improving the PCK of teachers and in turn student performance.
Kim is with the School of Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum Studies, Kent State University, Kent, OH. Ward and Li are with the Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Sinelnikov and Curtner-Smith are with the Department of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. Ko is with the Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. Iserbyt is with the Department of Movement Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.