Chapter 2: The Teacher Pipeline for PETE: Context, Pressure Points, and Responses

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

Recruiting, teacher preparation, and acquiring teaching jobs can be viewed as a pipeline. The function of the pipeline is to provide competent and qualified physical education teachers to teach in our nation’s schools. On the exit end of the pipeline, jobs for physical education teachers are plentiful. At the entry level to the pipeline, the situation is problematic because there is a decline in the number of students entering many physical education teacher education programs. This decline, documented in some cases and reported anecdotally in others, has occurred across the United States, with the exception of some states such as Texas and Alabama. The personal, practical, and policy implications of declining admissions have yet to be played out in their entirety. In this paper, the author discusses the pipeline, its policy pressure points, and responses to the pressure points designed to address declining admission.

Ward is with The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Address author correspondence to Phillip Ward at Ward.116@osu.edu.
  • Aragon, S. (2016). Teacher shortages what we know. Retrieved from https://www.ecs.org/teacher-shortages/

  • Ayers, S.F., & Woods, A.M. (2019). Chapter 5—Recruitment in PETE: Survey results and discussion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banville, D., & Rikard, L. (2009). Teacher induction—Implications for physical education teacher development and retention. Quest, 61, 237256. doi:10.1080/00336297.2009.10483613

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The cost of teacher turnover in five school districts: A pilot study. Retrieved from https://nctaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/NCTAF-Cost-of-Teacher-Turnover-2007-full-report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barth, P., Dillon, N., Hull, J., & Higgins, B.H. (2016). Overview of teacher shortages at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Staffingstudents/An-Overview-of-Teacher-Shortages-At-a-Glance/Overview-of-Teacher-Shortages-Full-Report-PDF.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulger, S., Jones, E.M., Taliaferro, A.R., & Wayda, V. (2015). If you build it, they will come (or not): Going the distance in teacher candidate recruitment. Quest, 67, 7392. doi:10.1080/00336297.2014.984731

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulger, S.M., Braga, L., DiGiacinto, K., & Jones, E.M. (2016). Student recruitment and retention efforts in PETE: Cloudy skies or silver linings. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87, 3441. doi:10.1080/07303084.2016.1216485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulger, S.M., & Housner, L.D. (2009). Relocating from easy street: Strategies for moving physical education forward. Quest, 61, 442469. doi:10.1080/00336297.2009.10483625

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Occupational outlook handbook. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/

  • California State University San Marcos Academic Senate. (2015, January 21). Executive committee agenda (pp. 45). Retrieved from http://www.csusm.edu/senate/meetings/meetingdocs/1415/1-agenda-packet_ec_1.21.15.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carver-Thomas, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher turnover: Why it matters and what we can do about it. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Commit. (2014). Dallas country snapshot. Retrieved from http://commit2dallas.org/about-us/dallas-county-snapshot/

    • Export Citation
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1990). Teaching and knowledge: Policy issues posed by alternate certification for teachers. Peabody Journal of Education, 67(3), 123154. doi:10.1080/01619569009538694

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D.J., Gatlin, S.J., & Heilig, J.V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(42). Retireved from https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeAngelis, K.J., Wall, A.F., & Che, J. (2013). The impact of preservice preparation and early career support on novice teachers’ career intentions and decisions. Journal of Teacher Education, 20, 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Educator Recruitment & Retention Task Force. (2015). Educator retention and recruitment report. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Department of Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Florida Department of Education. (2017). Identification of critical teacher shortage areas. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/core/fileparse.php/7766/urlt/CTSA1617.p

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Georgia Professional Standards Commission. (2018). Educator certification division. Retrieved from https://www.gapsc.com/Certification/Home.aspx

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goings, R.B., Brandehoff, R., & Bianco, M. (2018). To diversify the teacher workforce start early. Educational Leadership, 75(8), 5055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoerr, T. (2013). Is your school happy? Educational Leadership, 70(8), 8687.

  • Ingersoll, R., Merrill, M., & Stuckey, D. (2018). The changing face of teaching. Educational Leadership, 75(8), 4449.

  • Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201233. doi:10.3102/0034654311403323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kern, B.D., Ayers, S.F., Killian, C., & Woods, A.M. (2019). Chapter 8—Retention in PETE: Interview results and discussion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0213

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kern, B.D., Richards, K.A.R., Ayers, S.F., & Killian, C. (2019). Chapter 6—Recruitment in PETE: Interview results and discussion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lovett, K. (2016). Understanding and identifying teacher shortage areas in Oregon; An analysis of statewide data to provide insight into recent trends in teacher supply and demand. Retrieved from http://www.ode.state.or.us/wma/researchteacher-shortage-final-report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McClellan, M. (2017, May 5). My turn: Now, Arizona teachers just have to be warm bodies. Retrieved from https://www.azcentral.com/story/opinion/op-ed/2017/05/05/my-turn-now-arizona-teachers-just-have-warm-bodies/309420001/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metzler, M., van der Mars, H., Templin, T., Graber, K., McKenzie, T., Bulger, S., & Ward, P. (2015). The last PETE program standing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(Suppl. 2), A-137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, M., Leachman, M., & Masterson, K. (2016). Funding down, tuition up: State cuts to higher education threaten quality and affordability at public colleges. Washington, DC: Center on Budget Policy and Priorities. Retrieved from http://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/5-19-16sfp.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Center for Educational Statistics. (2013). NCES: The condition of education 2013 report. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013037.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Center for Educational Statistics. (2017). NCES: The condition of education: Elementary and secomdary schools. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cga.asp

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nevel, J. (2017, November 12). Teacher shortage hitting Illinois school districts hard. Retrieved from http://www.sj-r.com/news/20171112/teacher-shortage-hitting-illinois-school-districts-hard

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North Carolina State Board of Education. (2017). 2017–18 Highly qualified NC teaching graduates. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/fbs/finance/salary/hqfaq.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papay, J.P., Bacher-Hicks, A., Page, L.C., & Marinell, W.H. (2017). The challenge of teacher retention in urban schools. Evidence of variation from a cross-site analysis. Educational Researcher, 46, 434448. doi:10.3102/0013189X17735812

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patton, M.Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods(4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Podolsky, A., & Sutcher, L. (2016). California teacher shortages: A persistent problem. Retieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/ca-teacher-shortage-persistent-problem-brief

    • Export Citation
  • Ramsey, R. (2015, July 13). Analysis: Texas schools, by the numbers. Retrieved from https://www.texastribune.org/2015/07/13/analysis-texas-schools-numbers/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., & Graber, K.C. (2019). Chapter 7—Retention in PETE: Survey results and discussion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0211

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., & Templin, T.J. (2011). The influence of a state mandated induction assistance program on the socialization of a beginning physical education teacher. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30, 340357. doi:10.1123/jtpe.30.4.340

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stringer, S. (2015). Dropping the ball: Disparities in physical education in New York city. Retrieved from https://comptroller.nyc.gov/reports/dropping-the-ball-disparities-in-physical-education-in-new-york-city/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the U.S. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teach for America. (2017). Home website. Retrieved from https://www.teachforamerica.org

  • Templin, T.J., Blankenship, B., & Richards, K.A.R. (2014). End of a golden era: The demise of a PETE program. PElinks4u, 16(8). Retrieved from http://www.pelinks4u.org/articles/templin10_2014.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Census. (2017). San Diego County. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/sandiegocountycalifornia, CA/PST045216

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2014). State funding trends and policies on affordability. Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667557.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vagi, R., Pivovarova, M., & Barnard, W. (2017). Keeping our best? A survival analysis examining a measure of preservice teacher quality and teacher attrition. Journal of Teacher Education . doi:10.1177/0022487117725025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P. (2013). The role of content knowledge in conceptions of teaching effectiveness in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84, 431440. PubMed ID: 24592773 doi:10.1080/02701367.2013.844045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P. (2016). Policies, agendas and practices influencing doctoral education in physical education teacher education. Quest, 68, 420438. doi:10.1080/00336297.2016.1234964

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Li, W., Kim, I., & Lee, Y-S. (2012). Content knowledge courses in physical education programs in South Korea and Ohio. International Journal of Human Movement Science, 6, 107120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., van der Mars, H., Richards, K.A.R., Bulger, S., & Castelli, D. (2017, April). Rethinking recruitment and retention strategies in undergraduate PETE programs. Paper presented at the Society of Health and Physical Educators of America Conference, Boston, MA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zembylas, M. ( 2007). Emotional ecology: The intersection of emotional knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 355367. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2006.12.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 155 155 4
Full Text Views 52 52 3
PDF Downloads 28 28 2